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Presentation on theme: "Contraception."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contraception

2 Contraception Methods
Abstinence Vasectomy Tubal Ligation Birth Control Pill Depo-Provera Male Condom IUD Diaphragm Cervical Cap Female Condom Spermicidal Jelly and Foam Rhythm Method Withdrawl Method

3 Abstinence When men and women* refrain from sexual intercourse
This results in sperm not having any contact with the vagina It is 100% effective There are no risks involved

4 Vasectomy In males The vas deferens are cut and tied/sealed
Due to this there are no sperm in the male ejaculate This is a permanent procedure Close to 100% effective*

5 Vasectomy Risks: some complications with the procedure may arise (infection, bruising, bleeding in the scrotum), some pain, etc. Can be “reversed” through a vasovasostomy Rate of pregnancy following a reversal is ~55% (if performed within 10 years after the vasectomy Rate of pregnancy drops to ~25% after 10 years.

6 Tubual Ligation In females The oviducts are cut and tied/sealed
The ova do not reach the oviducts or uterus 99% effecting in first year following the procedure Permanent May have risk of operative and postoperative complications

7 Birth Control Pill A daily hormone medication which is taken orally
It works by FSH and LH not being released Risks: increased chance of forming blood clots, and hormonal side effects Close to 100% effective

8 Specifically, synthetic estrogen in the pill works to:
Birth control pills prevent pregnancy through several mechanisms, mainly by stopping ovulation. If no egg is released, there is nothing to be fertilized by sperm. Most birth control pills contain synthetic forms of two female hormones: estrogen and progestin. These synthetic hormones stabilize a woman's natural hormone levels, and prevent estrogen from peaking mid-cycle. Without the estrogen bump, the pituitary gland does not release other hormones that normally cause the ovaries to release mature eggs. Specifically, synthetic estrogen in the pill works to: Stop the pituitary gland from producing follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in order to prevent ovulation. Support the uterine lining (endometrium) to prevent breakthrough bleeding mid-cycle. Meanwhile, synthetic progestin works to: Stop the pituitary gland from producing LH in order to prevent egg release. Make the uterine lining inhospitable to a fertilized egg. Partially limit the sperm's ability to fertilize the egg. Thicken the cervical mucus to hinder sperm movement (although this effect may not be key to preventing pregnancy).

9 Depo-Provera A.k.a. “The Needle”
A brand of progesterone-only contraceptive, that is a long acting hormonal contraceptive Are injected with the hormone once ever 3 months Its effects are reversible in weeks Risks: Hormonal side effects, and osteoporesis 99% effective

10 Male Condom A latex sheath that fits over an erect penis
Sperm are trapped in the condom Risk: reaction to the latex Plastic (polyurethane) alternative exist as well Effectiveness: 97%

11 Advantages: The condom is the best method for reducing the risk of STIs for those who choose to have intercourse. (As always, abstinence is the only 100 percent guarantee.) Allows men to share responsibility for pregnancy prevention and protection against STDs. Can be easily obtained and does not require a prescription. Disadvantages: Some people are allergic to latex. Polyurethane condoms can be used as an alternative. Some individuals argue that condoms reduce sensitivity and pleasure during intercourse. Some people dislike interrupting sex to put it on. Condoms may break if they are put on incorrectly.

12 Male Condom Things to Remember
The male condom cannot be used in conjunction with the female condom. Condoms should not be used with oil-based lubricants such as petroleum jelly, Vaseline, or mineral and vegetable oil. Such lubricants damage the condom or increase breakage. Condoms (particularly latex ones) should be protected from the heat, which can weaken them or cause breakage. Some condoms do have a "shelf life" – after which they are too weak to use

13 Female Condom A lubricated polyurethane pouch that is inserted into the vagina Sperm are trapped in the condom Effectiveness: ~85%

14 Advantages: Can be purchased at grocery and drugstores without a prescription from a doctor. Insertion is easy once the technique is learned. Stays in place even when a man loses his erection, unlike the male condom. Allows the woman to take responsibility and protect herself against STIs and pregnancy. Disadvantages: The condom may slip into the vagina during intercourse. The outer ring may irritate the female's vagina/vulva. The inner ring may irritate the male's penis. Some argue that the feeling/pleasure from intercourse is reduced or that it is noisy, which means more lubrication is needed

15 Intrauterine Device A.K.A “IUD”
A plastic coil (or T-shaped device) that is wrapped in copper OR contains hormone, and is inserted into the uterus (by your doctor) Hormonal type slightly more effected at preventing pregnancy than the copper 2 hormonal models: 1 works for 5 years, the other for 3 The copper model can stay in place for up to 10 years

16 IUD Prevents fertilization by damaging or killing sperm
Hormonal type also makes the mucus in the cervix thicken and sticky so sperm cannot get through; also keeps the uterus (endometrium) from growing thick Copper is toxic to sperm, and it makes the uterus and oviducts produce fluid that kills sperm Implantation is prevented Long-acting contraception Risks: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) [older models], expulsion {2-5%}, perforation of the uterus (0.7%) Effectiveness: over 90%

17 Diaphragm A large latex cup that fits over the cervix and prevents sperm from entering A spring is molded into the rim of the dome, which helps to create a seal against the walls of the vagina, blocking sperm at the cervix Risks: reaction to latex, increased risk of urinary tract infection, toxic shock syndrome (2.4/100, 000 cases) when left in for longer than 24 hours Effectiveness: ~90%

18 Cervical Cap A latex cap is attached to the cervix by suction
Sperm is blocked at the cervix Must be kept in at least 6 hours after intercourse, can be kept in place for up to 48 hours Comes in 3 sizes Fit determined by your doc Risk: reaction to latex Effectiveness: ~85%

19 Spermicidal Jelly and Foam
These products are inserted into the vagina before intercourse A large percent of sperm are killed Risks: higher risk of uti/yeast infection/bacterial vaginosis in females; possible irritation, itching, or sensation of burning of the sex organs (reaction to spermicide) Effectiveness: ~75%, pregnancy rates higher when solely relying on this that in combination with other contraceptives

20 Rhythm Method The date of ovulation is determined by record keeping and temperature, records of previous menstrual cycles are kept to help determine Intercourse is avoided at the most fertile times of the month Menstrual cycle phases can vary greatly from women to women Risks: none Effectiveness: ~70%

21 Calendar-based methods of contraception make several assumptions that are not always true:
Postovulatory (luteal) phase normal length is days, this method assumes all women have this phase within this range (despite many having shorter than this and few having longer) results in incorrectly identifying a few fertile days as infertile Pre-ovulatory phase can vary significantly depending on the woman’s typical cycle length, stress factors, medication, illness, menopause, breastfeeding, hormonal contraception Assumes all bleeding is true menstruation, however mid-cycle bleeding or anovulatory bleeding can occur

22 Withdrawal Method A.k.a “Coitus interruptus” or “Pull-out method”
The male withdrawals the penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation Sperm does not contact the vagina **pre-ejaculate (“Cowper’s fluid”) emitted prior to ejaculation normal contains sperm cells Risk: “None” – does not protect against STI’s Effectiveness: ~70%

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