3Hormones The 3 hormones associated with the gonad glands are: TestosteroneEstrogenProgesterone
4TestosteroneTestosterone is secreted in the testes and is necessary for proper physical development in boys.Testosterone is involved in many of the processes in puberty.Healthy development of male sex organsGrowth of facial and body hairLowering of the voiceIncrease in heightIncrease in muscle massGrowth of the Adams appleThrough manhood it functions to maintain many processes.Maintains sexual desireSperm productionMaintain strength and massPromoting healthy bone density
5EstrogenProduced in ovaries and, in lesser amounts, by the adrenal cortex, placenta, and male testes.Role/Function:Not known what it does in malesGrowth and development of sexual characteristics and the reproductive processIf fertilization does occur, estrogen and progesterone work together to prevent additional ovulation during pregnancyEstrogen by working with calcium, vitamin D, and other hormones and minerals helps prevent bone loss.However once estrogen levels start to decline, bone breaks down faster than it builds.Therefore after menopause, women lose about 20 percent of their bone mass.
6ProgesteroneProgesterone is a hormone released by the corpus luteum in the ovaryThe corpus luteum is what is left of the follicle after a woman ovulates.After a woman ovulates if the egg is not fertilized, the corpus luteum dies and progesterone production stops. When progesterone levels drop, the uterus lining stops thickening and sheds during a woman’s menstrual cycleRole/Function: plays an important part in the menstrual cycle and in maintaining the early stages of pregnancyHelps prepare the uterus for pregnancy.Progesterone causes the uterine lining to thicken and helps prepare a supportive environment in your uterus for a fertilized eggDuring pregnancy the progesterone maintains a supportive environment
7Hypogonadism Also known as “Gonad deficiency” Also known as “Gonad deficiency”In males it may be called low serum testosterone orAndropauseOccurs when your sex glands produce little or no sex hormones (testosterone)Two types of hypogonadismPrimary hypogonadism: not enough sex hormones due to problem in the gonads. Gonads receive message to produce hormones but are unable to produce themCentral Hypogonadism: problem lies in the brain. Hypothalamus and pituitary gland (which control the gonads) are not working properly
8Primary Hypogonadism Causes Central Hypogonadism Cause autoimmune disorders, such as Addison’s disease and hypoparathyroidismgenetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndromeinfectionliver and kidney diseasesradiation exposuresurgery on the sex organsgenetic disorders, such as Kallmann syndromeinfections, including HIV and AIDSpituitary disordersobesityrapid weight lossnutritional deficienciesuse of steroids or opiatesEtc.
9Symptoms Loss of body hair Muscle loss Breast growth Reduced growth of penis and testiclesErectile dysfunctionLow sex driveEtc.
10Klinefelter SyndromeGenetic condition that results when a boy is born with an extra copy of the X chromosomeInstead of (XY) sex chromosomes men will have (XXY) in each cellResults from a random error during the formation of the egg or spermAffects testicular growthCan result in smaller than normal testiclesCan lead to lower production of testosteroneMay cause reduced muscle mass, reduced body and facial hair, and enlarged breast tissueProduce little or no sperm
11Symptoms Symptoms vary by age Babies: Boys and Teenagers: taller than average staturelonger legs, shorter torso and broader hipsabsent, delayed or incomplete pubertyAfter puberty, less muscular bodies and less facial hairSmall, firm testiclesSmall penisEnlarged breast tissueWeak bonesLow energy levels, etc.Men:InfertilitySmall testicles and penisSmaller than average statureWeak bonesDecreased facial and body hairEnlarged breast tissueDecreased sex driveSymptoms vary by ageBabies:weak musclesslow motor developmentdelay in speakingquiet personalityproblems at birth such as testicles that haven’t descended into the scrotum, etc.
13drierFun FactsWhen estrogen levels are low, as in menopause, the vagina can become drier and the vaginal walls thinner, making sex painful.
14Concept Check Questions Where is testosterone produced? Where is estrogen produced? Name 3 functions for each.Testosterone is produced in the testes. Estrogen is produced in the ovaries. Testosterone: maintains sexual desire, sperm production, maintain strength and mass, promote healthy bone density. Estrogen: growth and development of sexual characteristics and the reproductive process, helps prevent bone loss, prevent additional ovulation during pregnancy.What is the corpus luteum and how does it play a role in the production of progesterone?The corpus luteum is what’s left of the follicle after a woman ovulates. If the egg becomes fertilized the production of progesterone increases to help protect the uterus and thicken the uterine lining.What are the two types of hypogonadism and what are their main differences?Primary and central hypogonadism. Primary hypogonadism is due to a problem in the gonads. The gonads receive the message to produce hormones but are unable to. In central hypogonaism the problem lies in the brain. The glands which control the gonads are not working properly so the message to produce hormones is not sent.
15Bibliography"Diseases and Conditions: Klinefelter syndrome." Mayo Clinic. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/klinefelter-syndrome/basics/definition/con >."Endocrine System." Chapter 7. Applied Anatomy and Physiology A Case Study Approach. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Print."Estrogen." Healthy Women. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar <http://www.healthywomen.org/condition/estrogen>."Hypogonadism." Healthline. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar <http://www.healthline.com/health/hypogonadism#Symptoms4>."Progesterone." You and Your Hormones. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar <http://www.yourhormones.info/hormones/progesterone.aspx>."Progesterone and pregnancy: a vital connection." Resolve. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar <http://www.resolve.org/about-infertility/understanding-my-body/progesterone-and-pregnancy- a-vital-connection.html>."What is the corpus luteum?" Just Mommies. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar <http://www.justmommies.com/articles/corpus-luteum.shtml>.