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© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Valašské Meziříčí 25.4.2015 1 Connecting to the Network.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Valašské Meziříčí 25.4.2015 1 Connecting to the Network."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Valašské Meziříčí Connecting to the Network

2 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Objectives  Concept of networking  Benefits of networks  Communication protocols  Local Ethernet network  Access layer devices  Distribution layer devices

3 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Networking and Its Benefits  Types of networks

4 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Networking and Its Benefits  Examples of small, medium and large networks

5 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Networking and Its Benefits  Components of an Information network

6 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Networking and Its Benefits Roles of computers on a network:  Clients and servers

7 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Networking and Its Benefits  Computer peer-to-peer network Equal peer nodes function as both "clients" and "servers”.

8 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Networking and Its Benefits  Computer peer-to-peer network Advantages Easy to set up Simple Low cost

9 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Networking and Its Benefits  Computer peer-to-peer network Disadvantages Difficult to administer Less secure Not scalable Slow: All devices both clients and servers

10 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Network Topologies  Logical and physical topologies Physical topology: Where the devices are located. computers hubs switches routers servers

11 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Network Topologies  Logical and physical topologies Logical topology: How devices communicate with one another. Shows names, addresses, applications.

12 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Communication Protocols Communication: source, channel, destination

13 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Communication Protocols  Protocols = Set of Rules When? How long? What box, paper? Sound, Light, Electricity? Uni-, Multi-, Broad-cast? What paragraphs?

14 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Communication Protocols  Encoding in human communication What is she dreaming about? What has he decoded? Bad encoding - decoding...

15 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Communication Protocols  Timing and access methods Calling sleeping. Bad timing...

16 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Communication Protocols  Message patterns Unicast Multicast Broadcast

17 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Communication Protocols Human communications:  messages  unit sizes  timing  encapsulation  encoding  message patterns “Protocol”

18 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Local Ethernet Network  Devices on a network must share common protocols People must share common languages

19 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Local Ethernet Network  Standardization in computer communication protocols

20 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Local Ethernet Network  Physical addressing: MAC addresses

21 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Local Ethernet Network  Hierarchical design in an Ethernet Network

22 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Local Ethernet Network  The logical network address: IP address Network address Host addresss Which network? Which host?

23 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Access Layer Devices  The function of a Hub... but all devices receive all messages. 1 source, destination,... Only one communication at a time.

24 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Access Layer Devices  The function of a Hub 2 sources sending at the same time collision !!!

25 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Access Layer Devices  The function of switches Switch learns MAC addresses and sends messages only to the right destination. Many communications at a time.

26 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Distribution Layer Devices  The function of routers Packets forwarding Packets filtering Logical grouping of devices Joining – separating networks

27 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Distribution Layer Devices  Default gateway aa.aa.aa Inside a single network the computers know each other‘s addresses – no problem to communicate.

28 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Distribution Layer Devices  Default gateway aa.aa.aa But if they want to send a packet outside their own network, they need somebody, who knows the way. They need the Default gateway.

29 Valašské Meziříčí © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Summary  Networks carry data.  Hosts can be clients, servers, or both.  All communication needs a source, destination, and channel.  Protocols are sets of rules.  Protocols govern computer communications.  Each network host needs physical MAC address logical IP address.


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