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1 Meat and Meat Alternates Module Three Healthy Cuisine for Kids.

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1 1 Meat and Meat Alternates Module Three Healthy Cuisine for Kids

2 2 Objectives: Meats and Meat Alternates 1.Apply the DGA messages to the role of meat and meat alternates in a healthy diet. 2.State the nutrient requirements in child nutrition meal patterns and program standards related to meats and meat alternates. 3.Describe the contribution of meats and meat alternates to the appeal and acceptability of the menu.

3 3 4.Apply the correct methods for selecting and handling meats and meat alternates to ensure high quality and safe products. 5.Describe the application of culinary techniques, basic skills, and cooking methods needed in preparing meats and meat alternates to produce nutritious and appealing products consistent with the nutrition principles of the DGA. Objectives: Meats and Meat Alternates, continued

4 4 6.Identify ways to use meats and meat alternates speed scratch products to reduce labor without sacrificing product quality. 7.Describe various methods of enhancing the flavor of meats and meat alternates. 8.Describe appropriate garnishes for meats and meat alternates.

5 5 Nutrition Focus Meats and Meat Alternates

6 6 Meats Beef Pork Poultry Fish Meat Alternates Cheese Eggs Cooked dry beans and peas Peanut and other seed butters Tofu

7 7 Sources of Complete and Incomplete Protein Meats are from animals and provide complete protein. Meat alternates, except cheese and eggs, are from plants and provide incomplete protein.

8 8 Contributions of Nutrients in Meat, Poultry, Fish, Eggs, and Nuts Group Major Protein Vitamins Niacin Vitamin B 6 Minerals Zinc Substantial Vitamins Thiamin Riboflavin Vitamin B 12 Minerals Potassium Iron Magnesium Copper Phosphorus Linoleic Acid

9 9 Nutrient Contribution From Meat Alternates Legumes Protein Minerals Vitamins Fiber Cheese, Eggs, Nuts Protein Minerals Vitamins Fat

10 10 Complementary Proteins Refried beans on a corn tortilla with a little cheese Black beans and rice Black-eyed peas and cornbread Hoppin’ John (black-eyed peas and rice) Succotash (corn and lima beans) Black bean salad with peanut butter sandwich Hummus and pita bread

11 11 Meat Alternates Help Supply Shortfall Nutrients Shortfall nutrients for children are calcium, magnesium, potassium, and fiber. Meat alternates, such as legumes and grains are good sources of fiber and contain significant amounts of other shortfall nutrients.

12 12 Other Meat Alternates Eggs and Cheese Eggs belong to the meat group and are used in cooking and baking breakfast main dishes salads and sandwiches Cheese belongs to the milk group, and is used in cooking and baking main dishes salads and sandwiches

13 13 Functions of Eggs FunctionExamples Thicken foodEgg custard, quiche Add colorYellow cake, egg custard Provide moistureCookies, brownies Form emulsionsMayonnaise Add flavorBread, sauces Provide nutrientsProtein, vitamins, iron

14 14 Applying the DGA to Meats and Meat Alternates Consume a variety of foods within and among the basic food groups while staying within energy needs. Control calorie intake to manage body weight. Increase daily intake of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and nonfat or low-fat milk and milk products.

15 15 Applying the DGA to Meats and Meat Alternates, continued Choose fats wisely for good health. Choose carbohydrates wisely for good health. Choose and prepare foods with little salt. Keep food safe to eat.

16 16 Critical Control Point (CCP) A critical control point (CCP) is an essential step to control, prevent, eliminate, or reduce a food safety hazard to an acceptable level. Loss of control at this point may result in a health risk. Type of delivery system, food product purchased, and cooking method influences the CCP in the preparation/delivery process.

17 17 Critical Control Limits (CCL) The Critical Control Limits (CCL) describe a standard for controlling the CCP. The CCLs are minimum or maximum times and temperatures that must be met to keep food safe at the CCP. Always use most recent FDA Code, state regulations, and local ordinances to set CCL.

18 18 Rules for Preparing and Storing Food 1. Start with clean wholesome foods from reliable sources. 2. Hold all frozen food at 0  F or lower during delivery and storage. 3. Hold all dry foods, such as beans and peas in a dry, cool, and dark well-ventilated area.

19 19 Rules for Preparing and Storing Food, continued 4. Scrub and sanitize cutting boards, knives, and electric slicers immediately after using to cut all meats, fish, or poultry. 5. Hold potentially hazardous foods out of the danger zone (41  F to 135  F). 6. Thaw frozen meat in the refrigerator at 41  F or below.

20 20 Rules for Preparing and Storing Food, continued 7. Place foods such as meat, poultry, fish, and milk products in coolers immediately upon delivery. 8. Avoid cross contamination of foods during preparation, storage, and service. 9. Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. 10.Never serve questionable food; if in doubt throw it out!

21 21 Characteristics of Quality Meat and Meat Alternates Appearance –How does it look? Texture or Consistency –How does it feel in your mouth? Flavor and Seasoning –How does it taste? Temperature when Served –Is the temperature right?

22 22 Knowing Your Job Have essential basic knowledge and skills, Know quality standards for preparing and evaluating the finished product, Know how to do your job correctly, Have a clear picture of the purpose of the CNP and, Understand that customer service includes both the food you serve and the way you serve it.

23 23 Basic Skills in Preparation Practice effective work habits. Use standardized recipes and procedures. Weigh or measure all ingredients. Use flavorings and seasonings appropriately. Follow the recipe exactly.

24 24 Basic Skills in Preparation, continued Select the appropriate cooking/preparation methods and equipment. Use equipment correctly. Mise en Place – be organized and manage your time effectively to produce final products for “just-in-time” service. Follow food safety procedures.

25 25 Preparing Meat For Cooking 1.Remove all visible fat. 2.Add appropriate seasonings/flavorings to replace flavor lost when fat was removed. 3.Do not add salt unless the recipe calls for it. Over time, gradually reduce the amount of salt in recipes, and replace with other seasonings.

26 26 Preparing Meat For Cooking, continued 4. Follow directions on recipe for time and temperature. 5. Prepare meat products as close to the time of service as possible, and ensure that food is held at the appropriate temperature for safety and to retain quality.

27 27 Processed Main Dish Products Have special storage requirements Contain directions on package that must be followed exactly Should be cooked for “just in time” service Are more expensive than when prepared from scratch---includes labor and seasonings Must be held correctly on serving line

28 28 What Happens When Meat, Poultry, and Fish Are Cooked? The texture is changed. The flavor is changed. The appearance/color is changed. Bacteria in the raw product are killed.

29 29 Principles of Meat Cookery 1.Always make sure the meat, poultry, and fish products are thoroughly cooked by using a thermometer to test the internal temperature. 2.Establish standards for cooking meat, poultry, and fish products that are consistent with your State and local ordinances.

30 30 Principles of Meat Cookery, continued 3.Cook meat, poultry, and fish at a constant moderate temperature to obtain a tender product. 4.Cook foods as close to serving time as possible to minimize nutrient loss and ensure quality of product.

31 31 Healthy Cooking Methods Dry-heat methods include roasting or baking, broiling, sautéing, and stir-frying. Moist-heat methods that use steam or liquid to cook foods are braising and stewing. A combination of dry and moist heat methods where the meat is seared then placed in liquid to cook.

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