Presentation on theme: "Antibiotics-only fight bacteria not viruses so won’t work against colds/flu Keywords:Pathogen, Clone, Biomass, Antibody, Antitoxin, Antigen, Photosynthesis,"— Presentation transcript:
Antibiotics-only fight bacteria not viruses so won’t work against colds/flu Keywords:Pathogen, Clone, Biomass, Antibody, Antitoxin, Antigen, Photosynthesis, asexual Keywords: Neuron, Horomone, FSH, LH, oestrogen, glands, vaccine, ovulation, antibiotics, receptor, effector, stimulus, mutation White Blood Cells 1) Eat microbe (ingest) 2)Produce antibodies 3) Make antitoxins Cloning Techniques -Animals Clone=genetically identical individual. 1)Embryo Cloning-a developing embryo is removed from an animal and the cells split apart. The cells are grown for a while before being implanted into separate host mothers Egg Embryo Cells split apart and implanted into separate host mothers. 2) Fusion Cell Cloning (reproductive cloning)- a nucleus is removed from an egg cell and replaced with a nucleus from another animals body cell. Adaptations To Cold Environment -small surface/area:volume ratio -thick fur -layer of fat as insulation -camouflage -wide paws to avoid sinking The Carbon CyclePyramids of Biomass Show amount of material at each stage Always a pyramid shape as… -some is used for respiration to move/grow -some is lost as heat -some material is not digested -some is lost as faeces Asexual Reproduction Parent Offspring No joining of gametes All genetic material from one parent so offspring are identical (clones) No variation. Cloning Techniques -Plants Clone=genetically identical individual. 1)Taking Cuttings 2)Tissue culture
Vaccinations 1) Given a weak/dead form of the pathogen 2)WBC’s produde antibodies 3)Pathogen is destroyed. 4)If come across real pathogen WBC’s can produce antibodies quickly Step 1: The white blood cell “sees” the antigen on the microbe You’re going down Step 2: The WBC produces antibodies to fit the antigen Step 3: The antibodies cause the microbe to clump Step 4: The WBC’s ingest the microbe Antibodies & White Blood Cells Nervous Responses Fast & short acting Always follow this pattern Stimulus Receptor Sensory Neurone Relay Neurone Motor Neurone Effector Response Synapses Connection between nerves, signal is transferred across gap by chemicals Hormones-chemical messengers produced by glands travel in the blood so are slow and have long lasting effects The Menstrual Cycle FSH- made in pituitary gland, causes egg to mature and oestrogen production Oestrogen-made in ovaries causes womb lining to thicken and LH production and stops FSH production LH-causes ovulation (egg release) on day 14. Reducing Fertility Pill-contains oestrogen so no FSH produced and no eggs. Can have side effect not 100% effective and doesn’t protect against STI’s Increasing Fertility FSH taken to stimulate egg production in ovaries Natural Selection-Darwin came up with this theory to explain evolution 1) Each species shows variation: 2)There is competition within each species for food, living space, water, mates etc 4)These survivors will pass on their better genes to their offspring who will also show this beneficial variation. Gutted ! Yum 3)The “better adapted” members of these species are more likely to survive – “Survival of the Fittest” Lamarck Claimed organisms changed over the course of their lifetime and pass on these features to offspring. E.g. a giraffe would stretch its neck and pass on this feature to its offspring. Mutations-changes in DNA can cause a beneficial change which will be passed onto offspring
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