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Light vs depth. Productivity vs depth Productivity vs Light PG – Gross Primary Productivity PN – Net Primary Productivity R - Respiration Pmax – maximal.

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Presentation on theme: "Light vs depth. Productivity vs depth Productivity vs Light PG – Gross Primary Productivity PN – Net Primary Productivity R - Respiration Pmax – maximal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Light vs depth

2 Productivity vs depth

3 Productivity vs Light PG – Gross Primary Productivity PN – Net Primary Productivity R - Respiration Pmax – maximal photosynthesis value Ic – compensation light intensity

4 Primary Productivity Found near Upwelling Areas SeaWifs Satellite

5 Primary Productivity Found near Upwelling Areas SeaWifs Satellite

6 Primary Productivity Nutrients Found near Upwelling Areas

7 Primary Productivity Coastal Upwelling Areas South Africa: southwest coast

8 Primary Productivity Equitorial Upwelling Areas

9 Primary Productivity

10 Protists - Zooplankton Foraminifera (Forams) A. Foraminifera (Forams) Test (shell) made of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) or agglutinated sediment particles Fossil tests used to age geological deposits Feed by extending pseudopodia through pores in test Pelagic forms (calcareous) Often have spines Tests may form foraminiferan oozes, esp. in shallow water beneath tropics (white cliffs of Dover – England) Benthic forms (calcareous or agglutinated) Calcareous tests can be important sources of sand for beaches

11 Protists - Zooplankton Foraminifera (Forams) A. Foraminifera (Forams) Southern England: White Cliffs of Dover

12 Protists - Zooplankton Foraminifera (Forams) A. Foraminifera (Forams)

13 Protists - Zooplankton Foraminifera (Forams) A. Foraminifera (Forams)

14 Protists - Zooplankton Radiolarians B. Radiolarians

15 Protists - Zooplankton Ciliates (Ciliophores) C. Ciliates (Ciliophores)

16 Seaweed & Kelp

17 Multicellular Algae - Seaweed Green Algae (Chlorophytes) A. Green Algae (Chlorophytes) Enteromorpha Often found in polluted areas; Used as bioassay tool Ulva (Sea Lettuce) Found in areas with high nutrient levels Valonia (Bubble Algae) Tropical and subtropical Caulerpa Invasive species (C. taxifolia) Codium (Dead Man’s Fingers) Multinucleated Halimeda Calcareous alga Ulva Valonia Caulerpa

18 Multicellular Algae - Seaweed Green Algae (Chlorophytes) A. Green Algae (Chlorophytes) Enteromorpha Often found in polluted areas; Used as bioassay tool Ulva (Sea Lettuce) Found in areas with high nutrient levels Valonia (Bubble Algae) Tropical and subtropical Caulerpa Invasive species (C. taxifolia) Codium (Dead Man’s Fingers) Multinucleated Halimeda Calcareous alga Codium Halimeda

19 Multicellular Algae - Seaweed Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) B. Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) Padina Sargassum Fucus (Rockweeds) Intertidal and subtidal species; Ecologically important Laminaria (Kelp) Some species consist of a single blade Commonly used for food Postelsia (Sea Palm) Usually on exposed rocky shorelines Laminaria Fucus

20 Multicellular Algae - Seaweed Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) B. Brown Algae (Phaeophyta)

21 Multicellular Algae - Seaweed Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) B. Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) Egregia (Feather Boa) Common on rocky Pacific coast Pelagophycus (Elk Kelp) Large float

22 Multicellular Algae - Seaweed Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) B. Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) Macrocystis (Giant Kelp) May reach 100 m and grow up to 50 cm day -1 Most common in cold water

23 Multicellular Algae - Seaweed Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) B. Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) Macrocystis (Giant Kelp) May reach 100 m and grow up to 50 cm day -1 Most common in cold water

24 Multicellular Algae - Seaweed Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) B. Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) Kelp Forests

25 Multicellular Algae - Seaweed Red Algae (Rhodophyta) C. Red Algae (Rhodophyta) Common in shallow water Contain accessory pigments called phycobilins Structurally less complex than brown algae May be heterotrophic or parasitic Some incorporate calcium carbonate into tissues (Why?) Coralline red algae Many are commercially important Porphyra Sebdenia Halimeda

26 Multicellular Algae - Seaweed Life History of Alga D. Life History of Alga

27 Multicellular Algae - Seaweed Life History of Alga D. Life History of Alga

28 Multicellular Algae - Seaweed Economic Uses of Kelp E. Economic Uses of Kelp 1.Food Source 2.Products a.Phycocolloids Algin (Extracted from kelp; harvested with boats) Carrageenan (Extracted from red algae) Emulsifier for dairy products, toothpaste, puddings Agar (Extracted from red algae) Used to form jellies, thicken mixtures Preserves, pharmaceutical applications b.Other Fertilizers, additives in animal feeds

29 Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Seagrasses (50 – 60 species) A. Seagrasses (50 – 60 species) Not true grasses (related to lilies) Roots, stems and shoots grow from horizontal rhizome Flowers typically small and inconspicuous (Why?)

30 Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Seagrasses (50 – 60 species) A. Seagrasses (50 – 60 species) 1.Eelgrass (Zostera) – Temperate Atl, Pac; Tropical Pac Eelgrass (Zostera marina)

31 Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Seagrasses (50 – 60 species) A. Seagrasses (50 – 60 species) 2.Surf grass (Phyllospadix) – Temperate Pac Surf Grass (Phyllospadix scouleri)

32 Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Seagrasses (50 – 60 species) A. Seagrasses (50 – 60 species) 3.Turtle grass (Thalassia) – Tropical

33 Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Salt Marshes B. Salt Marshes 1.Cord grass (Spartina) 2.Pickleweed (Salicornia) Spartina Salicornia

34 Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Salt Marshes B. Salt Marshes 1.Cord grass (Spartina) 2.Pickleweed (Salicornia) Spartina Salicornia

35 Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Mangroves C. Mangroves

36 Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Mangroves vs Salt Marshes C. Mangroves vs Salt Marshes


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