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Island Syndromes: Insects & Birds. Questions 1.What are the two main reasons for the development of wings? 2.What are some of the reasons that loss of.

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Presentation on theme: "Island Syndromes: Insects & Birds. Questions 1.What are the two main reasons for the development of wings? 2.What are some of the reasons that loss of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Island Syndromes: Insects & Birds

2 Questions 1.What are the two main reasons for the development of wings? 2.What are some of the reasons that loss of flight/wings has evolved? 3.What part does inbreeding play in flightless/wingless organisms? 4.In terms of the progression, what are the differences between the initial and final stages?

3 Introduction  The first insects could not fly  Evolved wings  Escape predators  Obtain food  Fold wings over body  Mobility  Hiding  Food

4 Types of Organisms  Birds  Pennula sandwichensis  Hawaiian Is. rail  Porzanula palmeri  Laysan Is. rail  Insects  Orthoptera  Hemiptera  Neuroptera  Lepidptera  Coleoptera  Hymenoptera  Diptera

5 Reasoning  Feeding on or near the ground  Crawling, walking, or hopping  Escaping predators  Hawaii has less predators  A lot of energy  Large wing muscle

6 Reasoning  Limits movement  Optimal for reproduction  Shifting diet  Missing mammals & large invertebrates  Outgrown wings  Wind conditions  Issue of blown away

7 Islands  Islands have three unique situations 1. cut off 2. small number of individuals 3. small area

8 Islands Inbreeding  New genetic material  Mutations  “healthy” genetically  “Only a slight deterioration of wings is needed to stop flight” (Island Biology, 1965)

9 Progression  Front & rear wings  Flat, few hairs, thin, narrow veins  Irregular, indented wing shapes  Greatly reduced rear wings

10 Progression  Smaller front wings  Develop a heavier texture  Veins thicken  Rear wings vanish  Odd shaped front wings  Could be covered with spines

11 Summary 1.What are the two main reasons for the development of wings? obtain food & escape predators

12 Summary 2.What are some of the reasons that loss of flight/wings has evolved? feed on or near the ground Hawaii has less predators conserve energy shifting diet out grow them

13 Summary 3.What part does inbreeding play in flightless/wingless organisms? Island species have a limited number of possible mates so inbreeding occurs. Mutations can occur that create the slightest change and causes loss of flight.

14 Summary 4.In terms of the progression, what are the differences between the initial and final stages?  Front & rear wings  Flat, few hairs, thin, transparent, narrow veins  Rear wings vanish  Thick veins and heavier wings  Odd shaped front wings  Could be covered with spines

15 Sources Brown, James H. & Lomolino, Mark V. (1998). Biogeography second edition. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers. Carlquist, Sherwin. (1980). Hawaii A Natural History. Honolulu: SB Printers, Inc. Carlquist, Sherwin. (1965). Island Life. New York: The Natural History Press. Howarth, F.G. & Mull, W.P. (1992). Hawaiian Insects and Their Kin. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pratt, Bruner, & Berrett. (1987). A Field Guide to The Birds of Hawaii and the Tropical Pacific. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Wagner, Warren L. & Funk, V.A. (1995). Hawaiian Biogeography: Evolution on a Hot Spot Archipelago. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.


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