17Each one ---- stew, sauce, & soup starts from one basic formula:a liquid plus something to thicken it.
18Their differences come from the proportion of one ingredient to the other and from the ingredients added by imaginative chefs.
19To make soups, stews, and sauces, you need a liquid. What liquid do I use?The choice depends on the other ingredients in the recipe.
20For a hearty vegetable beef stew, already filled with a variety of flavors, you could use just water.
21A mild soup based on one vegetable benefits from fruit juice or broth. TomatoSoupThree Orange SoupSummer FruitSoup
22What is broth/stock?Broth or stock is a flavorful liquid made by simmering meat, poultry, fish or vegetables in water for hours.
23A broth is also a worthy end for food scraps – seafood shells, vegetable peels, animal bones with some meat attached.
24Homemade Brothscan be time-consuming. You may decide to purchase store-bought versions.
25If there is no time to make a homemade broth, you can purchase ready-made. Canned, ready-to-use broth comes in several varieties including reduced sodium, fat-free, and vegetarian.Concentrated cubes or granules are dissolved in hot water. This form is often labeled bouillon.
27Cool quickly and remove the fat that rises to the surface and sets. After simmering leftovers, the liquid is strained and ingredients are discarded.Cool quickly and remove the fat that rises to the surface and sets.Homemade broth should be used within 4 – 5 days or frozen up to 3 months.Vegetable BrothBeef Broth
28Thickening Methods for Liquids & Sauces, Soups & Stews
291. Reductionis one method allowing the liquid to reduce through evaporation.The liquid thickens while simmering uncovered (evaporation).
302. Cornstarch may be used to thicken a liquid. The thickening process called gelatinization allows the starch granules to absorb water and slowly swell.
313. Flour is used to thicken a liquid by making a roux. A roux is a mixture of equal amounts of flour and fat to 1 cup liquid.
32The longer the flour is browned, the darker the roux. The fat may bebutter,margarine orfat drippings from cooked foods (chicken, beef, pork, sausage, bacon, etc.)The longer the flour is browned, the darker the roux.
334. Beans, split peas and other high-starch foods are effective thickening agents. 3 Tbsp of grated raw potato per cup of liquid will thicken. Add about minutes before the end of cooking time.
345. Eggs are less effective than starch but they add richness and flavor. 1 large egg or 2 yolks will thicken 1 cup of liquid.
35Eggs curdle easily. Beat the eggs lightly, stir in a small amount of the hot or acidic liquid. Slowly, pour the mixture into the rest of the liquid, stirring constantly.Curdling or weeping: When egg mixtures such as custards or sauces are cooked too rapidly, the protein becomes overcoagulated and separates from the liquid leaving a mixture resembling fine curds and whey.
36SaucesInspired by Italian chefs, the French elevated sauce making to an art by the 1800s.Today, a sauce is a flavored liquid that is often thickened and served to enhance the flavor of another food.The definition includes ketchup & cream-rich sauces served over shellfish.
37There are five basic sauces Hollandaise or butter sauceBéchamel or white sauce,Velouté or blond sauce,Espagnole or brown sauce,andTomato or red sauce.
38Hollandaise sauceEgg yolks are whisked with melted butter and lemon juice over a double boiler.The yolks are the emulsifier that holds the mixture together.
39Hollandaise sauce turns poached eggs, ham and an English muffin into Eggs Benedict. The sauce is also a favorite on asparagus or fish.
40Historians give credit to two versions of the origin of Eggs Benedict: 1860s -Credit is given to Delmonico’s Restaurant, the very first restaurant or public dining room ever opened in the United States.In the 1860’s, a regular patron of the restaurant, Mrs. LeGrand Benedict, finding nothing to her liking and wanting something new to eat for lunch, discussed this with Delmonico’s Chef Charles Ranhofer ( ), Ranhofer came up with Eggs Benedict.
41The following story appeared in the December 19,1942 issue of the weekly New Yorker Magazine "Talk of the Town" column and is based on an interview with Lemuel Benedict the year before he died.In 1894, Lemuel Benedict, a Wall Street broker, who was suffering from a hangover, ordered “some buttered toast, crisp bacon, two poached eggs, and a hooker of hollandaise sauce” at the Waldorf Hotel in New York.The Waldorf’s legendary chef was so impressed that he put the dish on his breakfast and luncheon menus after substituting Canadian bacon for crisp bacon and a toasted English muffin for toasted bread.
42Basic White SauceThe basic white sauce is also called a cream sauce or béchamel sauce.Milk or cream thickened with a butter and flour roux is used.This milk sauce is easily converted in to classic recipes.
43Heavy cream and Parmesan cheese makes an Alfredo sauce to toss with pasta.
44Heavy cream andpaprika becomes a rich Newburg sauce for shrimp and lobster.
45White sauceis also the base for the American classic, macaroni and cheese.
46Stock-Based SaucesA stock based sauce is made like a white sauce with animal fat and meat juices replacing butter and milk.Poultry drippings and a white roux produce a light sauceBrown sauces are made from red meat juices and a brown roux.Brown SauceVelouté or Blond Sauce
47“Country” gravy served with roast beef or chicken shows how a stock based sauce is made. 1. Remove the cooked meat or poultry from the pan and pour the juices that remain into a measuring cup.2. Skim off and reserve the fat.3. Use the ingredients to make a roux with 2 Tbsp flour and 2 Tbsp fat to 1 cup meat/poultry juice.
48Tomato-Based SaucesA basic red sauce is aromatic vegetables sautéed and some kind of tomato product.Thickness, flavor and color depend on the ingredients you choose.Usually associated with pasta, red sauces complement other dishes as well.
49Slices of eggplant breaded, fried and covered with tomato sauce for Eggplant Parmesan. Add celery & bell pepper to produce a Creole sauce over rice.
50Barbeque sauce is also a tomato-based sauce, sweet with brown sugar or molasses and tangy with mustard, onions and garlic.
51*Also Known as a gastrique Oil and Vinegar SaucesOil, acidic liquid and seasoning are combined to produce sauces with more liquid than oil as compared to vinaigrette salad dressings.*Sweet and sour sauce uses a few tbsp peanut oil to a cup of rice vinegar along with garlic, ginger, ketchup (has sugar).*Also Known as a gastrique
52Marinades belong to the oil and vinegar class. Marinades tenderize less tender cuts of meat by breaking down connective tissue.
55Soups Soups are dishes of solid foods cooked in liquid(s). They often contain broth as the liquid, along with meat, poultry, seafood and/or vegetables.
56Clear soupsprovide a base for more complex soups and sauces. Broth can be served as a clear thin soup.Consommé is a clarified broth, completed strained.
57Cream of Potato Soup Cream of Mushroom Soup Cream soupsare cooked vegetables pureed in a blender using flour and milk or cream.Cream of Potato Soup Cream of Mushroom Soup
58Crab Bisque Shrimp Bisque A bisqueis a rich cream soup that uses shellfish as the base instead of vegetables.Crab Bisque Shrimp Bisque
59Chunky Soups1. Chowders are fish, meat or vegetable soups thickened with potatoes or cream.
60New England Clam Chowder is thick with cream, chunky with potatoes and flavored with bacon.
61Manhattan Clam Chowder is lighter and features chunks of both potatoes and tomatoes.
622. Mulligatawny (muh-lih-guh-TAW-nee) Means “pepper water” in southern India where the soup originated.It starts with a chicken broth, highly seasoned with chilies, curry powder and other spices.Curry Powder
63FYI: Curry powder is more of a generic term for a blend of different spices. Most recipes and producers of curry powder usually include coriander, turmeric, cumin, fenugreek, and red pepper in their blends.Depending on the recipe, additional ingredients such as ginger, garlic, fennel seed, caraway, cinnamon, clove, mustard seed, green cardamom, black cardamom, mace, nutmeg, long pepper, and black pepper may also be added.
64Its many versions include poultry or meat, variety of vegetables, rice, eggs, shredded coconut and coconut milk or cream.
653. Minestrone (mih-nuh-STROH-nee) is a hearty Italian soup made with vegetables, beans and pasta. It is topped with grated Parmesan cheese.
67Fruit Soupsare a Scandinavian and Eastern European import, have gained interest in the US.They are served hot or cold.
68Fruits pureed with cornstarch, gelatin, buttermilk or yogurt as the base.
69Cold SoupsVichyssoise (from France) is a pureed soup of cooked leeks and potatoes in heavy cream, garnished with chives.
70Gazpacho is a well-seasoned, uncooked soup of southern Spain Gazpacho is a well-seasoned, uncooked soup of southern Spain. Dry bread is soaked and pureed with fresh tomatoes, bell pepper, onion, celery, cucumbers, olive oil and vinegar.