1. Au jus French for "with [its own] juice"; jus is the juice itself. In American cuisine, the term is mostly used to refer to a light sauce for beef.
2. Bisque Rich cream soup that uses shellfish as the base. Lobster Bisque Shrimp Bisque
3. Bouillon Concentrated cubes or granules which dissolve in water to provide a broth.
4. Broth Base for complex soups and sauces or the water in which meat, fish, or vegetables have been boiled; stock Beef Broth
5. Consommé A clarified broth, completely strained of all particles and sediments; often served as an appetizer or used as the base for a soup.
6. Cornstarch Fine, white powder that is pure starch made from the endosperm of the corn kernel used to thicken; twice the power of flour.
7. Gelatinization Thickening process using starch granules absorbing water through heat and swelling; acids interfere with the process.
8. Roux Mixture of equal amounts of flour and fat to one cup of a liquid; medium thickness = 2 Tbsp flour and fat to one cup of liquid.
9. Sauce Flavored liquid that is often thickened and served to enhance the flavor of another food; not hide it.
10. Soup Dishes of solid foods cooked in a liquid; often contain broth as the liquid, along with meat, poultry, seafood or vegetables.
11. Stew Any dish prepared by stewing or simmering small pieces of food in a tightly covered pan; most include vegetables and meat, poultry or fish;
Sauces, Soups and Stews What do these foods have in common: peppery shrimp gumbo served at a New Orleans restaurant;
homemade chicken gravy passed around at a family dinner table;
tomato soup ladled out in a school cafeteria?
Each one ---- stew, sauce, & soup starts from one basic formula: a liquid plus something to thicken it.
Their differences come from the proportion of one ingredient to the other and from the ingredients added by imaginative chefs.
To make soups, stews, and sauces, you need a liquid. What liquid do I use? The choice depends on the other ingredients in the recipe.
For a hearty vegetable beef stew, already filled with a variety of flavors, you could use just water.
A mild soup based on one vegetable benefits from fruit juice or broth. Three Orange Soup Summer Fruit Soup Tomato Soup
What is broth/stock? Broth or stock is a flavorful liquid made by simmering meat, poultry, fish or vegetables in water for hours.
A broth is also a worthy end for food scraps – seafood shells, vegetable peels, animal bones with some meat attached.
Homemade Broths can be time-consuming. You may decide to purchase store-bought versions.
If there is no time to make a homemade broth, you can purchase ready-made. Canned, ready-to-use broth comes in several varieties including reduced sodium, fat- free, and vegetarian. Concentrated cubes or granules are dissolved in hot water. This form is often labeled bouillon.
Homemade Broths or Stocks
After simmering leftovers, the liquid is strained and ingredients are discarded. Cool quickly and remove the fat that rises to the surface and sets. Homemade broth should be used within 4 – 5 days or frozen up to 3 months. Vegetable Broth Beef Broth
Thickening Methods for Liquids & Sauces, Soups & Stews
1. Reduction is one method allowing the liquid to reduce through evaporation. The liquid thickens while simmering uncovered (evaporation).
2. Cornstarch may be used to thicken a liquid. The thickening process called gelatinization allows the starch granules to absorb water and slowly swell.
is used to thicken a liquid by making a roux. A roux is a mixture of equal amounts of flour and fat to 1 cup liquid. 3. Flour
The fat may be butter, margarine or fat drippings from cooked foods (chicken, beef, pork, sausage, bacon, etc.) The longer the flour is browned, the darker the roux.
4. Beans, split peas and other high-starch foods are effective thickening agents. 3 Tbsp of grated raw potato per cup of liquid will thicken. Add about 15-20 minutes before the end of cooking time.
5. Eggs are less effective than starch but they add richness and flavor. 1 large egg or 2 yolks will thicken 1 cup of liquid.
Eggs curdle easily. Beat the eggs lightly, stir in a small amount of the hot or acidic liquid. Slowly, pour the mixture into the rest of the liquid, stirring constantly. Curdling or weeping: When egg mixtures such as custards or sauces are cooked too rapidly, the protein becomes overcoagulated and separates from the liquid leaving a mixture resembling fine curds and whey.
Sauces Inspired by Italian chefs, the French elevated sauce making to an art by the 1800s. Today, a sauce is a flavored liquid that is often thickened and served to enhance the flavor of another food. The definition includes ketchup & cream-rich sauces served over shellfish.
There are five basic sauces Hollandaise or butter sauce Béchamel or white sauce, Velouté or blond sauce, Espagnole or brown sauce, and Tomato or red sauce.
Hollandaise sauce Egg yolks are whisked with melted butter and lemon juice over a double boiler. The yolks are the emulsifier that holds the mixture together.
Hollandaise sauce turns poached eggs, ham and an English muffin into Eggs Benedict. The sauce is also a favorite on asparagus or fish.
Historians give credit to two versions of the origin of Eggs Benedict: 1860s -Credit is given to Delmonico’s Restaurant, the very first restaurant or public dining room ever opened in the United States. In the 1860’s, a regular patron of the restaurant, Mrs. LeGrand Benedict, finding nothing to her liking and wanting something new to eat for lunch, discussed this with Delmonico’s Chef Charles Ranhofer (1899 -1936), Ranhofer came up with Eggs Benedict.
1894 - The following story appeared in the December 19,1942 issue of the weekly New Yorker Magazine "Talk of the Town" column and is based on an interview with Lemuel Benedict the year before he died. In 1894, Lemuel Benedict, a Wall Street broker, who was suffering from a hangover, ordered “some buttered toast, crisp bacon, two poached eggs, and a hooker of hollandaise sauce” at the Waldorf Hotel in New York. The Waldorf’s legendary chef was so impressed that he put the dish on his breakfast and luncheon menus after substituting Canadian bacon for crisp bacon and a toasted English muffin for toasted bread.
Basic White Sauce The basic white sauce is also called a cream sauce or béchamel sauce. Milk or cream thickened with a butter and flour roux is used. This milk sauce is easily converted in to classic recipes.
Heavy cream and Parmesan cheese makes an Alfredo sauce to toss with pasta.
Heavy cream and paprika becomes a rich Newburg sauce for shrimp and lobster.
White sauce is also the base for the American classic, macaroni and cheese.
Stock-Based Sauces A stock based sauce is made like a white sauce with animal fat and meat juices replacing butter and milk. Poultry drippings and a white roux produce a light sauce Brown sauces are made from red meat juices and a brown roux. Velouté or Blond Sauce Brown Sauce
“Country” gravy served with roast beef or chicken shows how a stock based sauce is made. 1. Remove the cooked meat or poultry from the pan and pour the juices that remain into a measuring cup. 2. Skim off and reserve the fat. 3. Use the ingredients to make a roux with 2 Tbsp flour and 2 Tbsp fat to 1 cup meat/poultry juice.
Tomato-Based Sauces A basic red sauce is aromatic vegetables sautéed and some kind of tomato product. Thickness, flavor and color depend on the ingredients you choose. Usually associated with pasta, red sauces complement other dishes as well.
Slices of eggplant breaded, fried and covered with tomato sauce for Eggplant Parmesan. Add celery & bell pepper to produce a Creole sauce over rice.
Barbeque sauce is also a tomato-based sauce, sweet with brown sugar or molasses and tangy with mustard, onions and garlic.
Oil and Vinegar Sauces Oil, acidic liquid and seasoning are combined to produce sauces with more liquid than oil as compared to vinaigrette salad dressings. *Sweet and sour sauce uses a few tbsp peanut oil to a cup of rice vinegar along with garlic, ginger, ketchup (has sugar). * Also Known as a gastrique
Marinades belong to the oil and vinegar class. Marinades tenderize less tender cuts of meat by breaking down connective tissue.
How-To Make Sauces Website http://www.helpwithcooking.com/sau ces/introduction-sauces.html http://www.helpwithcooking.com/sau ces/introduction-sauces.html
Key Concepts and Soups
Soups Soups are dishes of solid foods cooked in liquid(s). They often contain broth as the liquid, along with meat, poultry, seafood and/or vegetables.
Clear soups provide a base for more complex soups and sauces. Broth can be served as a clear thin soup. Consommé is a clarified broth, completed strained.
Cream soups are cooked vegetables pureed in a blender using flour and milk or cream. Cream of Potato Soup Cream of Mushroom Soup
A bisque is a rich cream soup that uses shellfish as the base instead of vegetables. Crab Bisque Shrimp Bisque
Chunky Soups 1. Chowders are fish, meat or vegetable soups thickened with potatoes or cream.
New England Clam Chowder is thick with cream, chunky with potatoes and flavored with bacon.
Manhattan Clam Chowder is lighter and features chunks of both potatoes and tomatoes.
2. Mulligatawny (muh-lih-guh-TAW-nee) Means “pepper water” in southern India where the soup originated. It starts with a chicken broth, highly seasoned with chilies, curry powder and other spices. Curry Powder
FYI: Curry powder is more of a generic term for a blend of different spices. Most recipes and producers of curry powder usually include coriander, turmeric, cumin, fenugreek, and red pepper in their blends.corianderturmericcumin fenugreekred pepper Depending on the recipe, additional ingredients such as ginger, garlic, fennel seed, caraway, cinnamon, clove, mustard seed, green cardamom, black cardamom, mace, nutmeg, long pepper, and black pepper may also be added.gingergarlicfennel seedcarawaycinnamonclovemustard seedgreen cardamomblack cardamom macenutmeglong pepperblack pepper
Its many versions include poultry or meat, variety of vegetables, rice, eggs, shredded coconut and coconut milk or cream.
3. Minestrone (mih-nuh-STROH-nee) is a hearty Italian soup made with vegetables, beans and pasta. It is topped with grated Parmesan cheese.
Freshly Grated Parmesan Cheese
Fruit Soups are a Scandinavian and Eastern European import, have gained interest in the US. They are served hot or cold.
Fruits pureed with cornstarch, gelatin, buttermilk or yogurt as the base.
Cold Soups Vichyssoise (from France) is a pureed soup of cooked leeks and potatoes in heavy cream, garnished with chives.
Gazpacho is a well-seasoned, uncooked soup of southern Spain. Dry bread is soaked and pureed with fresh tomatoes, bell pepper, onion, celery, cucumbers, olive oil and vinegar.
Soup Art – drizzle cream
Soup Art – garnish with peppers
Soup Art – drizzles and garnishes
Basic Soup Making How you start a soup depends on what you want in the end.
Chicken Vegetable Soup is a basic model for a hot, simmered soup. Begin by sautéing chopped onions, carrots, celery, garlic and other aromatic vegetables in a pot or slow cooker.
Add a liquid. A stock can be made from simmering less-tender cuts of chicken. A store-bought version can be purchased. Chicken bouillon cubes may be used and dissolved in water.
Add more vegetables such as potatoes, tomatoes, corn, etc.
Add chicken: Precooked Sautéed from pieces Stewed from cuts Left-over grilled