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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Crustal Deformation Earth, 10e - Chapter 10.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Crustal Deformation Earth, 10e - Chapter 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Crustal Deformation Earth, 10e - Chapter 10

2 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Structural Geology Structural geologists study the architecture and processes responsible for deformation of Earth’s crust. A working knowledge of rock structures is essential to our modern way of life.

3 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Deformation Deformation is a general term that refers to all changes in the original form and/or size of a rock body. Most crustal deformation occurs along plate margins. Deformation involves: Force—that which tends to put stationary objects in motion or changes the motions of moving objects

4 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Deformation Deformation involves: Stress—force applied to a given area Types of stress » Compressional stress shortens a rock body. » Tensional stress tends to elongate or pull apart a rock unit. » Shear stress produces a motion similar to slippage that occurs between individual playing cards when the top of the stack is moved relative to the bottom.

5 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Deformation Strain—changes in the shape or size of a rock body caused by stress How rocks deform Rocks subjected to stresses greater than their own strength begin to deform by folding, flowing, or fracturing.

6 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Deformation How rocks deform General characteristics of rock deformation – Elastic deformation—The rock returns to nearly its original size and shape when the stress is removed. – Once the elastic limit (strength) of a rock is surpassed, it either flows (ductile deformation) or fractures (brittle deformation).

7 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Deformation of Rocks

8 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Deformation How rocks deform General characteristics of rock deformation – Factors that influence the strength of a rock and how it will deform » Temperature » Confining pressure » Rock type » Time

9 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Folds During crustal deformation, rocks are often bent into a series of wave-like undulations called folds. Characteristics of folds Most folds result from compressional stresses that shorten and thicken the crust.

10 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Folds Characteristics of folds Parts of a fold – Limbs refers to the two sides of a fold. – An axis is a line drawn down the points of maximum curvature of each layer. – An axial plane is an imaginary surface that divides a fold symmetrically.

11 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Folds Common types of folds Anticline—upfolded or arched rock layers Syncline—downfolds or troughs of rock layers Depending on their orientation, anticlines and synclines can be described as: – Symmetrical, asymmetrical, recumbent (an overturned fold), or plunging

12 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Symmetrical Folds

13 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Anticlines and Synclines

14 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Syncline

15 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Plunging Anticline—Wyoming

16 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Folds Common types of folds Monoclines are large, step-like folds in otherwise horizontal sedimentary strata. Other types of folds Domes – Upwarped displacements of rocks – Circular or slightly elongated structures – Oldest rocks are in the center; younger rocks are on the flanks.

17 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Monocline

18 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Structural Dome

19 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Black Hills—A Large Dome

20 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Folds Other types of folds Basins – Circular or slightly elongated structures – Downwarped displacements of rocks – Youngest rocks are found near the center; oldest rocks are on the flanks.

21 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Structural Basin

22 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Michigan Basin

23 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Faults Faults are fractures in rocks, along which appreciable displacement has taken place. Sudden movements along faults are the cause of most earthquakes. Classified by their relative movement, which can be horizontal, vertical, or oblique.

24 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Faults Types of faults Dip-slip faults – Movement is mainly parallel to the dip of the fault surface – May produce long, low cliffs called fault scarps – Parts of a dip-slip fault include the hanging wall (rock surface above the fault) and the footwall (rock surface below the fault).

25 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fault Scarp in California

26 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Hanging Wall and Footwall Along a Fault Surface

27 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Faults Types of dip-slip faults – Normal faults » The hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall. » Accommodate lengthening or extension of the crust » Most are small with displacements of 1 meter or so. » Larger scale normal faults are associated with structures called fault-block mountains.

28 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Normal Fault

29 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fault-Block Mountains

30 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Faults Types of dip-slip faults – Reverse and thrust faults » The hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block. » Reverse faults have dips greater than 45 degrees and thrust faults have dips less then 45 degrees. » Accommodate shortening of the crust » Strong compressional forces

31 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Reverse Fault

32 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Faults Strike-slip faults Dominant displacement is horizontal and parallel to the strike of the fault Types of strike-slip faults – Right-lateral—As you face the fault, the opposite side of the fault moves to the right. – Left-lateral—As you face the fault, the opposite side of the fault moves to the left.

33 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Aerial View of a Strike-Slip Fault in Nevada

34 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Faults Strike-slip faults Transform faults – Large strike-slip faults that cut through the lithosphere – Accommodate motion between two large crustal plates

35 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The San Andreas Fault System

36 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Joints Among the most common rock structures Technically, a joint is a fracture with no movement. Most occur in roughly parallel groups. Significance of joints Chemical weathering tends to be concentrated along joints.

37 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Joints Significance of joints Many important mineral deposits are emplaced along joint systems. Highly jointed rocks often represent a risk to construction projects.

38 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Nearly Parallel Joints in Arches National Park, Utah

39 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Mapping Geologic Structures When conducting a study of a region, a geologist identifies and describes the dominant rock structures. Usually, only a limited number of outcrops (sites where bedrock is exposed at the surface) are available. Work is aided by advances in aerial photography, satellite imagery, and global positioning systems (GPSs).

40 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Strike and Dip of a Rock Layer

41 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Geologic Map Showing the Strike and Dip of Structures

42 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. End of Chapter 10


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