2In its simplest form it means ‘staying the same’ 2The term ‘homeostasis’ is derived from two Greek words; Homeo which means ‘unchanging’ and Stasis which means ‘standing’In its simplest form it means ‘staying the same’It is an organism’s internal environment which ‘stays the same’The ‘internal environment’ refers to the conditions inside an organism. These conditions remain more or less constant despite changes such as pH or temperature in the outside environmentIn practice, it comes down to providing a stable environment for the cells of the body
33The living processes in the cells depend on the activity of enzymes. Specialized protein that catalyzes (speeds up a rxn) of a cell.These enzymes work best in specific conditions such as those of temperature and pH. Any change in these conditions affects the function of the enzymes and may lead to the death of the cells or, ultimately, the whole organismThis is why the internal environment needs to be regulated and kept constant.The internal conditions are not absolutely constant, but allowed to vary within very narrow limits. Human body temperature, for example, varies between 36.1 – 37.8 o C. The average temperature is usually expressed as 36.8o C
44There is no specific organ which controls homeostasis except, possibly, the brainThe skin, kidneys, liver, endocrine system, nervous system and sensory system all play a part in maintaining the internal environment within narrow limitsThe skin is a homeostatic organ which helps maintain the body temperature within the limits given in the previous slide
55The external temperature varies during the day and from season to season, sometimes by as much as 40oC, (See slide 1) but the human body temperature stays at about 37oCThis is achieved by sweating, vasodilation, vasoconstriction, and shiveringIf the body temperature rises, the sweat glands in the skin are activated and secrete sweat on to the surface of the skinWhen the sweat evaporates, it takes heat from the body and cools it down
66sweat poreevaporationSection through skinepidermisThe sweat gland extracts sweat from the blood and passes it up the duct to the skin surface where it evaporatesdermissweat ductsweat glandblood vessel0.25 mmSweat gland
7Vasodilation Vasoconstriction much heat lost 7much heat lostVasodilationIf the body temperature rises, the blood vessels in the skin dilate (become wider) and allow more blood to flow near the surface. The heat loss from the blood through the skin helps cool the circulating bloodlittle heat lostVasoconstrictionIf the body temperature falls. The blood vessels in the skin constrict. Less warm blood flows near the surface so less heat is lost
88To carry out its living processes, every cell in the body needs a supply of oxygen and food. Waste products such as carbon dioxide have to be removed before they reach harmful levels and damage the cellThese conditions are maintained by tissue fluid bathing the cells. Tissue fluid is derived from the bloodThe tissue fluid contains oxygen and food which the cells can absorb, and also accepts the carbon dioxide and other waste products produced by the cells
9The blood system maintains the composition of the tissue fluid 9The blood system maintains the composition of the tissue fluidcellstissue fluidglucosecarbon dioxideoxygencarbon dioxidefluid filtered out of capillarytissue fluid enters capillaryblood flow
10These homeostatic functions are carried out by the kidneys 10In the cells, the chemical breakdown of proteins produces the nitrogenous compound, urea. If this were allowed to accumulate in the cells it would damage or kill them.The concentration of the blood and tissue fluids tends to vary. If water is lost through evaporation and sweating, the fluids become more concentrated. The intake of water dilutes the fluidsIt is important that the concentration of blood and tissue fluid is kept within narrow limits if the cells are to function properlyThese homeostatic functions are carried out by the kidneys
11Microscopic slice of kidney tissue 11Microscopic slice of kidney tissueBlood pressure forces tissue fluid out of a clump of narrow capillariesThe fluid contains urea, salts, glucose and other soluble substancesThe fluid trickles down this tubule and the useful substances such as glucose are reabsorbed into the bloodIn this tubule more or less water is reabsorbed to maintain the blood concentrationExcess water, some salts and urea collect here before passing to the bladder as urineKidney function
12The glucose concentration in the blood is controlled by the pancreas 12The glucose concentration in the blood is controlled by the pancreasThe pancreas contains cells which produce digestive enzymes but it also contains cells (alpha and beta cells) which produce the hormones insulin and glucagonIf the glucose concentration rises, the beta cells release insulinIf the glucose concentration falls, the alpha cells release glucagonInsulin stimulates the liver and muscles to remove excess glucose from the blood and store it as glycogenGlucagon stimulates the liver to convert its stored glycogen into glucose which is then released into the bloodstreamIn this way, the concentration of glucose in the blood is kept within narrow limits
13One important method of achieving homeostasis is negative feedback 13One important method of achieving homeostasis is negative feedbackIt applies to many systems in the body. Temperature regulation is one exampleIf the blood temperature rises, a ‘heat gain’ centre in the brain sends nerve impulses to the skin, which causes vasodilation and sweating, which cool the blood (Slide 5)If the blood temperature falls, it stimulates a ‘heat loss’ centre in the brain which sends impulse to the skin causing vasoconstriction and the cessation of sweating. These changes reduce heat loss from the skinThe temperature regulatory centre is located in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain just above the pituitary gland, (see slide No.15) with which it is closely associated. The hypothalamus exercises control of a number of regulatory systems.The warmer or cooler blood provides negative feedback to the thermoregulatory centre in the brain
14Oestrogen also acts on the uterus and causes its lining to thicken 14Another example of negative feedback is the control of the hormone oestrogenThe pituitary body produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) which promotes the development of the ovarian follicles and causes the ovaries to produce oestrogenOestrogen also acts on the uterus and causes its lining to thickenWhen the oestrogen reaches a certain level in the blood, it acts on the pituitary and stops the production of more FSHIn this case, oestrogen is exerting a negative feedback on the pituitaryThe temperature regulatory centre is located in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain just above the pituitary gland, (see slide No.00)If the oestrogen level in the blood falls, the pituitary begins to secrete FSH again
15follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 15brainfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)pituitary glandovaryoestrogenA follicle is a group of cells enclosing an ovum (egg cell). The follicle enlarges,and protrudes from the surface of the ovary before bursting and releasing its ovumoestrogenuterusOestrogen
16Interstitial fluid: Fluid between the cells of multicellular organisms bathes and surrounds the cells of the body, and provides a means of delivering materials to the cells, intercellular communication, and removal of metabolic waste.The exchange of material across the capillaries occurs at high rate by diffusion in both directions.Formation of the IF:The high content of proteins in the plasma accounts for its higher osmotic pressure compared to that of the IF which will attract fluid and dissolved substances into the circulation from the tissue spaces . Opposing this force is the hydrostatic pressure of the blood which tends to force fluids out of the circulation and into the tissue spaces, thus equilibrium is always maintained.Edema; Is the term used to describe an unusual accumulation of interstitial.Interstitial fluid
18Lymph fluid composition The lymphatic system is made up of vessels which collect excess fluid from around the cells by diffusion into lymph capillaries, and returns it to the circulatory system. Composition of the Lymphatic System: -Lymph fluid, Lymph vessels, Lymph duct, lymph node Functions: 1) lymphatic vessels: transport fluids and protein that have escaped from blood vascular system back to the blood. 2) Fat transport: from gastrointestinal tract to the blood 3)Body defense system: *lymph nodes filter lymph, contains lymphocytes
19It is colorless, watery fluid originating from the interstitial fluid that is present in the lymphatic system .Composition of lymph.;It has the same composition as interstitial fluid.It has a higher content of protein and contains white blood cells, (its protein content will vary according to which tissue it penetrates).(thus containing proteins , fat absorbed from intestine , waste products , antibodies and lymphocytes .)Lymph fluid
20Formation of lymph: filtration forces water and dissolved substances from the capillaries into the tissue space forming the interstitial fluid (IF). Not all of this water is returned to the blood by osmosis, thus, excess fluid is picked up by lymph capillaries forming the lymph fluid.
21Lymph vessels; The lymphatic vessels are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. -They are one cell thick. -They are slightly larger and more permeable than blood capilleries.- -They remove excess fluid from around the cells thus preventing edema. - Thus Lymphatic vessels carry lymph, a colorless, watery fluid originating from interstitial fluid (fluid in the tissues to drain it into larger vessels called the ducts. -Unlike the circulatory system, the lymphatic system is not closed and has no central pump; the lymph moves slowly and under low pressure. Like veins, lymph vessels have one-way valves thus allowing the interstitial fluid to enter the lymph capillaries and flow in one direction to the lymph ducts passing through the lymph nodes to empty eventually into the blood circulation.
24Along the network of lymph vessels are small organs called lymph nodes Along the network of lymph vessels are small organs called lymph nodes. They are small oval like structures that are 1-25mm long. Clusters of lymph nodes are found scattered around the body especially in the underarms, groin, neck, chest, and abdomen. Function of Lymph nodes ; -They contain cavities called sinuses ,In to which the lymph flows. The walls of the sinuses are lined with Phagocytic cells, which engulf and destroy any foreign particles,e.g., bacteria, viruses that might be present in the lymph thus filtering the lymph as it passes by. -It also play a vital role in the production of immuno competent lymphocytes and macrophages in the specific immune response. When the body is fighting an infection, these lymphocytes multiply rapidly and produce a characteristic swelling of the lymph nodes. Approximately 25 billion different lymphocytes migrate through each lymph node every day. Thus it cleans the lymph before it returns it back to the blood ,produces lymphocytes and antibodies.
25Disorders of the lymphatic system Whenever the lymphatic system cannot drain interstitial fluid from tissues faster than they accumulate, the resulting swelling is known as lymphedema. Accumulation of lymph fluid in the pleural cavities leads to chylothorax. Cancers that develop from lymphocytes are known as lymphomas.