Presentation on theme: "What are the histological features of bone?"— Presentation transcript:
1What are the histological features of bone? BIOL 2010 Human Anatomy & Physiology IWhat are the histological features of bone?Types of bone cells:(Most likely to have “osteo”)_____________Cells from endosteum and inner periosteum__________Cells forming matrix__________Cells “trapped” in matrix__________Multinucleated cells “remodel” matrix
2What are the other categories of bone besides the shapes (ex What are the other categories of bone besides the shapes (ex. Long, irregular etc.)?Bone is classified depending on the arrangement of cells and matrix.Types:________ ~ Collagen fibers are __________ arranged________ ~ Collagen fibers are arranged _________
3What are the other categories of bone besides the shapes (ex What are the other categories of bone besides the shapes (ex. Long, irregular etc.)?Types:__________ (_______) ~ Network of mineralized bone (_____________) with many spaces~ ___________ fills up these spaces in life
4Types:Cancellous (spongy)Referring back to our discussion of striae and collagen fibers, what direction do you suppose the trabeculae align in relation to stress?
5What are the other categories of bone besides the shapes (ex What are the other categories of bone besides the shapes (ex. Long, irregular etc.)?Types:_________ ~ Dense _______ bone that is mineralized (mature) with numerous units (________) arranged around ___________ _________Compare this photomicrograph to the diagram and locate the listed structures
6Discuss with your neighbor and predict an answer. Take 5!!!Compact bone has a specialized canal system for the transport of nutrients and waste products. Why isn’t such a system necessary in cancellous bone?Discuss with your neighbor and predict an answer.
7OK Mary, we know about your cartilage… so how does your bone grow? 2 patterns of ossification: (compared in table 6.2)________________________________Originally _________ tissue __________Originally ________ that is ossifiedNote: Both types start as ________ ______, which is remodeled as it matures
8How does your bone grow? Intramembranous Ossification fontanelsHow does your bone grow?Intramembranous OssificationOccurs during _______ __________ and “finishes” by 2 years of ageWoven bone fibers connect and thicken forming ________ (cancellous bone)Outer layer of __________ create outer layer of ________
9How does your bone grow? Endochondral Ossification Occurs during fetal development and “finishes” by “______________”Hyaline _______ ______ formedPresence of blood vessels on periphery cause “_________” to become “_______”Internal chondrocytes die and are replaced by ________ and ______ cells
10How does your bone grow? Endochondral Ossification Hyaline cartilage model formed… everything is “__________”Blood vessels invading ______________ stimulate __________ cells to become ______________Perichondrium now becomes _______________New osteoblasts form ________ _________
11How does your bone grow?Buds of connective tissue from ___________ invade cartilage model. Bring in osteogenic cells.Then what happens?Osteoblasts form bone as ______ _______ enlargesBone growth progresses towards ___________ medullary cavity enlarges
12How does your bone grow?Osteoblasts form bone in __________ __________ center, beginning of ___________
13How does your bone grow?When bone is mature epiphyseal plate is ossified and becomes epiphyseal ______
14Discuss with your neighbor and predict an answer. Take 5!!!During endochondral ossification, calcification of cartilage results in the death of chondrocytes. Later in the process, ossification of the bone matrix does not result in the death of osteocytes. Why is this so?Discuss with your neighbor and predict an answer.
15Can bone display interstitial growth? How does your bone grow?Can bone display interstitial growth?We’ve talked about bone growth in length… what about diameter?Appositional _________ and _________
17How does your bone grow? Factors affecting bone growth: _________ Proteins Vitamins D & C_________ Growth hormone Thyroid hormone Sex hormonesNeeded for _______ portion of _______Needed for ___ ________ and _______ formation___________ overall growthStimulates bone ________ and works with _____Stimulates bone growth BUT also closure of __________ ______
18What different types of bone injuries are there? FracturesBones can succumb to stress… resulting in a fractureFractures categorized based on: 1) __________ _________ damageNeed a good picture5pts. e.c._______Open wound extends to fractureNo perforation of soft tissueClosed… soft tissue damage
19What different types of bone injuries are there? FracturesFractures categorized based on: 2) ________ of bone damage_________> or = 2 fragmentsNOT in 2 fragments
20What different types of bone injuries are there? FracturesFractures categorized based on: 3) _______ of bone damageEx. __________________Others: Displaced and non-, depressed, epiphyseal, and avulsion
21How do bones heal?Bone repair in 5 steps or less…1) __________ forms (blood confined in a space or organ)Clot formation includes protein mesh of _______Why?2) __________ ____ formsClot is replaced by internal callus… Fibers, then cartilage, then bone
22How do bones heal? 3) _______ ______ forms Forms cartilage, then bone support4) __________ ________ in external and internal calluses5) ___________ of boneClean up dead bone, reshape medullary cavity and compact bone of external callus
23How do bones heal? Fractures Rate of healing is dependent in part on ______ _____ on the bone.Which person will heal more quickly? Why?Also on _______ activity. Sometimes electrical current applied to speed healing process.
24How does the Skeletal System regulate Ca & P? Ca and P homeostasis_________: needed for nerve cell action, muscle contraction, blood clotting and more________: needed as a component of ATP, DNA and RNAWhy are these elements important?
25How does the Skeletal System regulate Ca & P? Ca and P homeostasis regulated in part via 2 hormones:______ (parathyroid hormone) comes from _________ _________________ minor role… secreted by ________ _______
26How does the Skeletal System regulate Ca & P? PTH +PTH = blood Cavia bone and kidney activitiesCalcitonin minor role… +Calcitonin = blood Ca