27Ligaments of Hip Joint: fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones Iliofemoral Ligament: lies anterior of hip joint, serves great strength to joint by resisting hyperextension.Pubofemoral Ligament: lies inferior to hip joint, helps thicken the capsule.Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 6th edition
28Ligaments ContinuedIschiofemoral Ligament: lies posterior to hip joint, consist of triangular band of strong fibers, helps thicken capsule.Zona Orbicularis Ligament: lies at lower and back of capsule, forms a circular collar around the neck of femur .Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 6th edition
29Ligaments ContinuedTransverse of Acetabulum Ligament: crosses the acetabular notch, fills in gap of inferior border of acetabulum.Ligament of femoral head: lies along transverse acetabular ligament, attaches to a small pit in the center of femoral head & acts when hip is flexed and thigh is laterally rotated.Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 6th edition
30Ligaments ContinuedSacrotuberous Ligament: runs from sacrum to ischial tuberosity of ischium, is flat and triangular shape, in a study was absent in 13% of cadavers.Inguinal Ligament: formed by external oblique aponerurotic fibers , runs from anterior superior iliac spine to pubic tubercle. Strengthens the abdominal wall. Is concerned with hernias.
31Articular Cartilage: provide smooth and slick surfaces to reduce friction during movements of joint. Acetabular labrum: is a ring of cartilage that surrounds the acetabulum to deepen the socket, making it harder for the femur head to slip out of place.Articular cartilage of head of femur: Is smooth and tough material that covers the femur head that help cushion between the bones and lets the femur move easily.Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology sixth edition
32Articular CapsuleArticular capsule: The joint cavity that is enclosed by a two-layered articular (joint) capsule.Fibrous Capsule: A tough external layer composed of dense irregular tissue that is continuous with the periostea of the articulating bones. It strengthens the joint so that the bones are not pulled apart.Synovial membrane: The inner layer of the joint capsule that is composed of loose connective tissue. The synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid. Synovial fluid is found within the articular cartilages, it provides a slippery weight-bearing film that reduces friction between the cartilages.
33Bursae: small fluid filled pockets located in connective tissue Bursae: small fluid filled pockets located in connective tissue. They develop where tendons or ligaments rub against other tissue.Trochanteric Bursae: is inflammation to the hip located on the tip of greater trochanter. Is common cause of hip pain. Most often caused by overuse or direct trauma to joint. More likely to involve in women.Ischial Bursae: inflammation that separates the gluteal maximus muscle from the ischial tuberosity. Usually formed from prolonged sitting on hard surfaces that press against the bones.Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 6th edition
34Bursae ContinuedGlutealfemoral Bursae: contains 2 or3 small bursae located between the tendon of the gluteus maximus and the rough line of the femur shaft.
35Piriformis Syndrome Piriformis Syndrome is caused when the sciatic nerve iscompressed by thepiriformis muscle.Piriformis syndrome willcause a dull pain in thehip or buttock region andsometimes may beexperienced from thelower back all the way to the foot.
36Piriformis Syndrome Piriformis Syndrome is caused by two main groups: Overload- caused by training errors, sports that require a lot of running, and sedentary lifesyles.Exercising on hard surfacesExercising on uneven surfacesExercsing in worn-out shoesSitting for long periods of timeBiomechanical Inefficiencies- faulty foot and body mechanics, gait disturbances, and poor posture or sitting habits.Poor running or walking habitsWalking with your toes pointing outStiff muscles in the lower back, buttocks, and hips
37TreatmentHave a thorough warm-up to help prepare the tendons and muscles for an upcoming activity. This way the muscles will not be tight or stiff when you are exercising.Always allow your muscles for rest and recovery after heavy exercise.Strengthening and conditioning of the hips, buttocks, and lower back will help prevent piriformis syndrome.Flexible muscles and tendons are significant in the prevention of strains or sprains. When muscles and tendons are flexible they are able to move and perform without being overstretched unlike muscles that are tight or stiff.
38Name That Surface Anatomy!! Posterior Superior Iliac SpineGreater Trochanter