Ligaments of Hip Joint: fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones 1) Iliofemoral Ligament: lies anterior of hip joint, serves great strength to joint by resisting hyperextension. 2) Pubofemoral Ligament: lies inferior to hip joint, helps thicken the capsule. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 6 th edition
Ligaments Continued 1) Ischiofemoral Ligament: lies posterior to hip joint, consist of triangular band of strong fibers, helps thicken capsule. 2) Zona Orbicularis Ligament: lies at lower and back of capsule, forms a circular collar around the neck of femur. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 6 th edition
Ligaments Continued 1) Transverse of Acetabulum Ligament: crosses the acetabular notch, fills in gap of inferior border of acetabulum. 2) Ligament of femoral head: lies along transverse acetabular ligament, attaches to a small pit in the center of femoral head & acts when hip is flexed and thigh is laterally rotated. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 6 th edition
Ligaments Continued 1) Sacrotuberous Ligament: runs from sacrum to ischial tuberosity of ischium, is flat and triangular shape, in a study was absent in 13% of cadavers. 2) Inguinal Ligament: formed by external oblique aponerurotic fibers, runs from anterior superior iliac spine to pubic tubercle. Strengthens the abdominal wall. Is concerned with hernias.
Articular Cartilage: provide smooth and slick surfaces to reduce friction during movements of joint. 1) Acetabular labrum: is a ring of cartilage that surrounds the acetabulum to deepen the socket, making it harder for the femur head to slip out of place. 2) Articular cartilage of head of femur : Is smooth and tough material that covers the femur head that help cushion between the bones and lets the femur move easily. Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology sixth edition
Articular Capsule Articular capsule: The joint cavity that is enclosed by a two-layered articular (joint) capsule. Fibrous Capsule: A tough external layer composed of dense irregular tissue that is continuous with the periostea of the articulating bones. It strengthens the joint so that the bones are not pulled apart. Synovial membrane: The inner layer of the joint capsule that is composed of loose connective tissue. The synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid. Synovial fluid is found within the articular cartilages, it provides a slippery weight-bearing film that reduces friction between the cartilages.
Bursae: small fluid filled pockets located in connective tissue. They develop where tendons or ligaments rub against other tissue. 1) Trochanteric Bursae : is inflammation to the hip located on the tip of greater trochanter. Is common cause of hip pain. Most often caused by overuse or direct trauma to joint. More likely to involve in women. 2) Ischial Bursae : inflammation that separates the gluteal maximus muscle from the ischial tuberosity. Usually formed from prolonged sitting on hard surfaces that press against the bones. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 6 th edition
Bursae Continued 1) Glutealfemoral Bursae: contains 2 or3 small bursae located between the tendon of the gluteus maximus and the rough line of the femur shaft.
Piriformis Syndrome is caused when the sciatic nerve is compressed by the piriformis muscle. Piriformis syndrome will cause a dull pain in the hip or buttock region and sometimes may be experienced from the lower back all the way to the foot.
Piriformis Syndrome Piriformis Syndrome is caused by two main groups: Overload- caused by training errors, sports that require a lot of running, and sedentary lifesyles. Exercising on hard surfaces Exercising on uneven surfaces Exercsing in worn-out shoes Sitting for long periods of time Biomechanical Inefficiencies- faulty foot and body mechanics, gait disturbances, and poor posture or sitting habits. Poor running or walking habits Walking with your toes pointing out Stiff muscles in the lower back, buttocks, and hips
Treatment Have a thorough warm-up to help prepare the tendons and muscles for an upcoming activity. This way the muscles will not be tight or stiff when you are exercising. Always allow your muscles for rest and recovery after heavy exercise. Strengthening and conditioning of the hips, buttocks, and lower back will help prevent piriformis syndrome. Flexible muscles and tendons are significant in the prevention of strains or sprains. When muscles and tendons are flexible they are able to move and perform without being overstretched unlike muscles that are tight or stiff.
Name That Surface Anatomy!! Posterior Superior Iliac Spine Greater Trochanter
Bone Quiz! Acetabulum Ischial Spine YOU DID IT!!
Do You Know Your Muscles?! What muscle is shown? Rectus Femoris What action does it assist in? Flexion
How About Those Ligaments?! What three ligaments are shown? Iliofemoral Ligament: Ischiofemoral Ligament Zona Orbicularis Ligament