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2. Review of Matrix Algebra Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp Mechanical Engineering Department Gebze Technical University ME 520 Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis

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Linear System of Algebraic Equations x 1, x 2, …, x n : are the unknowns. a 11, a 12, …, a 1n. a n1, a n2, …, a nn b 1, b 2, …, b n : constants ME 520 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp 2Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 2. Review of Matrix Algebra 2. Review of Matrix Algebra coefficients

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In matrix form: Ax=b where ME 520 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp 3Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 2. Review of Matrix Algebra 2. Review of Matrix Algebra ; coefficient matrix ; unkown vector ; constant vector

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Row and Column Vectors : ME 520 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp 4Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 2. Review of Matrix Algebra 2. Review of Matrix Algebra ; row vector ; column vector

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ME 520 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp 5Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 2. Review of Matrix Algebra 2. Review of Matrix Algebra

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Matrix Addition and Subtraction For two matrices A and B, both of the same size (m×n), the addition and subtraction are defined by ME 520 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp 6Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 2. Review of Matrix Algebra 2. Review of Matrix Algebra

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Scalar Multiplication: Matrix Multiplication For two matrices A (of size l×m) and B (of size m×n), the product of AB is defined by Note that, in general, ME 520 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp 7Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 2. Review of Matrix Algebra 2. Review of Matrix Algebra ; i=1,2,… l ; j=1,2,…n but (associative).

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Transpose of a Matrix: The transpose of a matrix or vector is formed by interchanging the rows and the columns. A matrix of order (m x n) becomes of order (n x m) when transposed. If then the transpose of A is Symmetric Matrix: A square (n×n) matrix A is called symmetric, if Unit (Identity) Matrix ME 520 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp 8Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 2. Review of Matrix Algebra 2. Review of Matrix Algebra Notice that or Note that

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Determinant of a Matrix: The determinant of square matrix A is a scalar number denoted by det A or |A|. For 2×2 and 3×3 matrices, their determinants are given by ME 520 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp 9Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 2. Review of Matrix Algebra 2. Review of Matrix Algebra

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Singular Matrix: A square matrix A is singular if det A = 0, which indicates problems in the systems (nonunique solutions, degeneracy, etc.) Matrix Inversion: For a square and nonsingular matrix A (detA ¹ 0), its inverse A -1 is constructed in such a way that The cofactor matrix C of matrix A is defined by M, A’nın i. satır ve j where Mij is the determinant of the smaller matrix obtained by eliminating the ith row and jth column of A. Thus, the inverse of A can be determined by yazılır. ME 520 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp 10Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 2. Review of Matrix Algebra 2. Review of Matrix Algebra

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It can be shown that If det A = 0 (i.e., A is singular), then A -1 does not exist! The solution of the linear system of equations can be expressed as (assuming the coefficient matrix A is nonsingular) Thus, the main task in solving a linear system of equations is to found the inverse of the coefficient matrix. Solution Techniques for Linear Systems of Equations: Gauss elimination methods Iterative methods Positive Definite Matrix: A square (n×n) matrix A is said to be positive definite, if for any nonzero vector x of dimension n, ME 520 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp 11Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 2. Review of Matrix Algebra 2. Review of Matrix Algebra

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Note that positive definite matrices are nonsingular. Differentiation and Integration of a Matrix: Let then the differentiation is defined by and the integration by olarak ifade edilir. ME 520 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp 12Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 2. Review of Matrix Algebra 2. Review of Matrix Algebra

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