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Sugars, Starches, Gums and Fibers Dr. Montville Fall 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Sugars, Starches, Gums and Fibers Dr. Montville Fall 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sugars, Starches, Gums and Fibers Dr. Montville Fall 2009

2 Outline 1.Uses in foods 2.Structure and function 3.“Artificial Sweeteners” Aspartame Smear 4.Starches, Pectins and Gums 5.Fiber and Diet 6.Metabolism of Sugars 7.Energy 8.Diet and Exercise 9.Video 10.Production of honey, sugar, maple syrup and molasses

3 Uses of Carbohydrates in Foods Sweetener Structure Bulk Water Binding “Mouth feel” Color Nutrition - Calories - Soluble and Insoluble fiber - Transit time, cholesterol bile binding Special uses of gums, starches and pectins: gelation, viscosity, emulsification

4 Structure of Carbohydrates

5 “Sugar is Back on Food Labels, This time as a Selling Point” The New York Times March 21, 2009 By Kim Severson - The quiet rivalry between sugar and high-fructose corn syrup appears to have a winner. - “ The first lady, Michelle Obama, has said she will not give her children products made with it (high-fructose corn syrup).”

6 Sugar: 8 Little Known Facts 1. Today’s Consumption: Today, an average American consumes 2-3 pounds of sugar each week. While at the end of the 19 th century (1887-1890) the average American consumed only 5 pounds per year. 2. A Continual Rise: Over the last 20 years, sugar consumption in the U.S has increased by 26 pounds resulting in an average of 135 pounds of sugar consumed per person per year 3. Hidden Culprits: Sugar consumption includes highly refined sugars that are incorporated into many of the foods we eat ( bread, peanut butter, condiments, sauces, ect.). 4. 4 Classes: 4 simple sugars (sucrose, fructose, honey and malts) are deemed “harmful” to optimal health when long-term consumption is over 15% of calories ingested. Why?

7 Sugar: 8 Shocking Facts (cont.) 5. Health Issues: Simple sugars have been documented to contribute to and/or aggravate health problems including: asthma, mood disorders, mental illness, nervous disorders, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, gallstones and athritis. 6. Insulin Impacts: Sugar raises insulin levels, inhibiting the release of growth hormones which depresses the immune system. Further, too much insulin promotes the storage of fat, so that when you eat food high in sugar, you’re enabling rapid weight gain and elevate triglyceride levels. 7. Degenerative Disease: Sugar has no real nutritional value and as a result, has a deteriorating effect on the endocrine system, causing sugar to be one of the three main causes of degenerative disease 8. Cancer Culprit: Turns out cancer’s preferred fuel is none other than glucose. Controlling one’s blood glucose level through various means can be extremely important to a cancer treatment program

8 Relative sweetness of sweeteners “Sugars” Sucrose1 Fructose1.7 Glucose0.7 Lactose0.16 Maltose0.32 Galactose0.32 Sugar alcohols* Sorbitol0.5 Mannitol1 Xylitol1 Artificial Sweeteners CyclamateBanned in U.S “Delaney Clause” Saccharin500 Aspartame100 Sucralose600 Acesulfame K200 *bind water, laxative effect, gassy (caloric)

9 Low/No Calorie Sweeteners - Reduce calorie intake - Don’t affect insulin levels - non-metabolize (except aspartame) - non-nutritive C yclamate – discovered in 1930 banned in 1970 Saccharin – used since 1900’s, banned in 1977, Reintroduced after congress lifted the ban with the “Delaney Clause” Acesulfame K – approved in 1981, marketed under the names Sunnette, NutraTaste Aspartame – approved in 1981, cannot be used in bakery products Sucralose – approved in 1998

10 Characteristics of Low/No Calorie Sweeteners AspartameSaccharinSucralose Composition The amino acid aspartic acid and phenylalanine 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)- one-1,1-dioxide trichlororgalacto-sucrose Caloric Value 4kcal/gCalorie free Metabolism/ Excretion Upon digestion breaks down to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and small amount of methanol Not metabolized: excreted by the kidneys unchanged Not metabolized; excreted in the feces and urine ADI (acceptable daily intake) 50mg/kg15mg/kg or 1g/day4mg/kg Approximate consumption as % of ADI Less than 10%Approximately 12%Less than 20% Labeling Requirements Must bear statement that the product contains phenylalanine Must bear statement that saccharin has cause cancer in lab. animals none Date of FDA approval 19811900 – since 1970’s interim approval 1998 Food and Bev. Approved for use in the U.S Tabletop sweeteners, beverages, processed foods Stability Loses sweetness when exposed to high heat Highly stable: can be used in cooking and baking Highly stable; can be used in cooking and baking

11 Sugar and Sweeteners: a Molecular View

12 A glass of tomato juice has 6 times more methanol than a can of soda Consumption for methanol toxicity = 3033 cans of soda One extra can of sugar sweetened soda per day can add 13 pounds per year When Nutrasweet is digested it yield 10% methanol That is widely distributed through your body and then metabolized to FORMALDEHYDE!! Scare tactics or concern? You decide

13 Function of Starches FoodFunctionBenefits Pies, tarts, fillingsStabilize and thickenResistant to weeping Instant puddingsInstant thickeningCreamy texture, smoothness and fast meltaway Gravy and saucesThickening without lumping Texture and cling Jelly gumsSetting and gelling agentClarity, easy processing Baked or fried puffed snacks Volume control, crispnessNo need for cooking during forming process Breakfast cerealTexture enhancementExcellent expansion and bowl life French friesForm, crisp coating, internal binder Crispier more appetizing product

14 Structure of Starch

15 Amylose and Amylopectin

16 Gums Gums - hydrocolloidal suspensions that don’t gel, aren’t soluble, but bind lots of water. Most important are non digestible soluble fiber. SourceGum SeedsGuar and Locust bean PlantsArabic (soluble in cold water) MicrobesXanthan and gelan Sea weedAlginate, carrageen, agar Chemical synthesismicro-crystalline cellulose, carboxy methyl cellulose

17 Soluble and Insoluble Fibers

18 Sources and Benefits of Fiber Foods Rich in Insoluble FiberFoods rich in Soluble ApplesCitrus fruits BeetsOatmeal CauliflowerPotatoes SeedsCherries NutsCorn Green beans/peasSeeds Wheat branbarley Health problemFiber typePossible Health Benefits ObesityBothReplaces calories from fat, provides satiety, prolongs eating time because of food chewiness ConstipationInsolubleProvides bulk and aids intestinal motility: binds bile acids DiabetesSolubleMay improve blood sugar tolerance by delaying glucose absorption HemorrhoidsInsolubleProvides bulk and aids intestinal motility: binds bile acids Colon CancerInsolubleSpeeds transit time through intestines and may protect against prolonged exposure to carcinogens

19 Carbohydrate Characteristics Simple Sugars and Starches Soluble Complex Fibers Insoluble Complex Fibers Digested like glucoseNondigestible High glycemic index Provokes insulin response No insulin response Provides 4cal/gNo calories May lower cholesterolDecreases intestinal transit time Decreases risk of heart disease “keeps you loose” Decrease diabetesProtects against colon cancer Protects against digestive disorders

20 Glucose Metabolism

21 Glycemic index of foods LowMediumHigh ApplesbananasCarrots BeansHigh-fructose corn syrup Dry dates ChickpeasHoneyGlucose GrapefruitIce creamInstant white rice Green leafy vegetables Oatmeal cookies Jelly beans Soy milkSucrosePotatoes StrawberriesSweet cornWhite bread Glycemic index – the impact carbohydrates obtained from the above sources will have on a persons blood glucoses levels

22 Insulin Response to Glucose Metabolism


24 The Effect of Diet on Physical Endurance

25 Brown Sugar Production Sugar Cane Shred Press Juice to Strainer Raise pH with Lime Heat Allow to settle in settling tank Crystallize Clear Juice under heat and vacuum Centrifuge and wash Brown unpurified sugar Residue (bagasse) Add hot water and press Bagasse (Usually used as fuel) Supernatant

26 White Sugar Production Raw Sugar Mixed with Saturate Sugar syrup Centrifuge to remove impurities Dissolve water and raise pH Heat to 180°F Filter through diatomaceous earth and charcoal Package Screen for size Dry Centrifuge and Wash Crystallize in Vacuum Pans Supernatant

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