2Body is organized into four levels: Cells Tissues Organs Organ systems
3CELLSYour body contains around100 trillion cells. You have more than 100 different kinds of cells.Human egg cellBlood cellsMuscle cellsNerve cells
4Stem CellsAny embryonic stem cell is capable of becoming any type of tissue found in the adult body.There are adult stem cells but they do not divide forever and they are also already specialized.
5Tissues are a group of specialized cells. 1. epithelial tissue - lines most body surfaces (skin, nails)2. Nervous tissue - nerve cells3. Connective Tissue - fat, cartilage, bones, tendons, blood4. Muscle tissue - skeletal (voluntary), cardiac (involuntary)
6Tissues are organized into organs which have specialized functions.
7ORGAN SYSTEMSOrgans are grouped into organ systems, in which several organs interact to perform a specific function, such as digestion.CirculatoryDigestiveNervousEndocrineReproductiveIntegumentary7. Skeletal8. Respiratory9. Muscular10. Excretory11. Immune
8Many organs are a part of multiple organ systems.
10Skeleton FunctionSupports the body, provides protection for internal organs, and enables movementThe 206 bones of the skeleton are divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton
11Appendicular Skeleton Axial SkeletonAppendicular Skeletonthe skull, spine, ribs, and sternumthe appendages or limbs:the shoulders, arms,hips, and legs
12BONE STRUCTUREmade of hard compact bone surrounding porous spongy boneCompact bone provides supportSome cavities of spongy bone contain soft tissue called bone marrow.
13Bone Growth Early in development, skeleton is mostly cartilage Bones harden as calcium and other minerals build upThicken and elongate as development continuesSevere bone loss can lead to a condition called osteoporosis
14JOINTS Types of Joints: Where two bone meet Bones of a joint are held together by strong bands of connective tissue called ligamentsTypes of Joints:immovable joints- cranial bones in skullslightly movable joints- vertebrae, bones in rib cagefreely movable joints- elbow, knees, fingers, etc.
18Muscles and MovementMuscles are attached to bones by tendonsMuscle pairs move parts of the body by pulling on bonesFlexor muscle- causes a joint to bendExtensor muscle- causes a joint to straightenMuscle tissue contains large amounts of contractile protein filaments called actin and myosin
19Muscle Contraction Energy is required for muscles to contract 2. The ATP used is usually supplied by aerobic respiration 3. During exercise oxygen is consumed at a sustainable, steady rate, and aerobic respiration yields most of the ATP4. Aerobic exercise makes the heart pump more efficiently and thus increases the energy available to muscles
221. Epidermis 2. Dermis 3. Subcutaneous tissue Outer layer of skin composed of a protein called Keratin that makes skin tough and waterproofInner layer contains Melanin- a pigment that affects skin colorThese cells are damaged by the environment2. Dermisbelow epidermal layer, consists of nerve cells , blood vessels, hair follicles and sweat glands3. Subcutaneous tissueAnchors skin to underlying organs.Below dermis fat and connective tissue.
23Skin DisordersMost skin disorders are caused by damage to the epidermisAcneSkin cancer caused by overexposure to UV radiation
25The circulatory system: Consists of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems.It transports nutrients, hormones and gasses and rids your body of wastes.
26Lymphatic systemConsists of lymph nodes and vessels. (Tonsils, Spleen, Thymus, Bone marrow)Lymphatic system collects and recycles fluids that are leaked from the cardiovascular system.It also helps fight infections
27Cardiovascular system Consists of blood vessels, blood and the heart.Transports materials, removes wastes, and distributes heat.
28Blood vesselsVeins bring blood to the heart and arteries carries blood from the heart.Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that allow the exchange of gas, nutrients, and hormones.
29Endothermy Enables the body to maintain homeostasis at all times Temperature is regulated by flow of blood through blood vessels just under the skin.
31Your brain uses chemical and electrical signals to communicate with the rest of your body.
32Three major parts: cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem.
33Central Nervous System – consist of brain and spinal cord The spinal cord - links the brain to the peripheral nervous system (which branches throughout the body).Central Nervous System – consist of brain and spinal cord
34Nerve CellsThe nervous system contains a complex network of nerve cells (neurons).Neurons structure allows it to conduct electrical signals (nerve impulses).Neurons transmit info through the body. They enable functions such as movement, thought, emotion and learning.
37The respiratory system: Consists of the lungs, nose, mouth and tracheaThe reparatory system moves air into and out of the lungsControls gas exchange between blood and the lungs.We inhale Oxygen (O2) and exhale Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
38The diaphragm – muscle that aids in respiration The lungsThe diaphragm – muscle that aids in respiration
39Your bronchioles are some of the smallest airways in your lungs Your bronchioles are some of the smallest airways in your lungs. They lead to tiny ducts that lead into elastic air sacs (alveoli), which diffuse oxygen to your bloodstream and receive carbon dioxide waste, which is then exhaled.After breathing, gases must be transported by the cardiovascular system and exchanged at the cells.
41The digestive system:Extracts nutrients from food and then absorbs them. It removes wastes and maintains water and chemical balances.Usable compounds from food are absorbed into capillaries in villi (in intestine). Compounds not absorbed are excreted.
42NutrientsOrganic nutrients include carbohydrates, fats, proteins or amino acids, and vitamins. Inorganic chemical compounds such as minerals; water and oxygen may also be considered nutrients.A nutrient is essential to an organism if it cannot be synthesized by the organism in sufficient quantities and must be obtained from an external source
43Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and phosphorus are elements that we consume in the largest quantities.Nutrients that are not needed in large quantities are called micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals.Nutrients are needed for growth, maintenance, and repair of the body.
44The digestive system:Consists of the mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small and large intestine.Digestive System
45Stomach: Stores and mechanically breaks down food. Small intestine: Where most chemical digestion occursLarge intestine: No digestion takes place here, wastes are stored. Many bacteria live in the large intestine.Nutrients are absorbed in both intestines.
46Liver: releases bile, detoxifies poisons, and helps to maintain blood sugar levels. Gall Bladder: Stores bile that helps digest food.Pancreas: Secretes enzymes that aid in digestion
48The excretory system:Consists of the bladder, kidneys, ureters, urethra, skin and lungs.It removes wastes from blood and regulates the concentration of bodily fluids.
49Bladder - collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra.Kidneys – help maintain homeostasis by maintaining bodily fluids and filtering the blood.
57The endocrine system :Composed of the hypothalamus gland, pituitary gland, pancreas and many other endocrine glands.Regulates body temperature, metabolism, development, and reproduction.It also maintains homeostasis and regulates organ systems.Synthesizes and secretes hormones.
58Pituitary gland – secretes hormones and regulates functions such as growth, blood pressure, and water and osmolarity regulationHypothalamus gland – synthesizes and secretes neurohormones. It regulates body temperature, blood sugar, water balance, sleep and emotions.Adrenal Gland – synthesizes adrenaline. Maintains stress response.
59Immune System Adenoids Tonsils Spleen Bone Marrow Appendix Large intestine
60- White bloods cells - Vessels - Lymph nodes - Skin Immune system:Defends against pathogens.Consists of cells and tissues throughout your body.- White bloods cells Vessels- Lymph nodes SkinThe immune system can recognize invading bacteria, viruses, and toxins.Each system can quickly mobilize the best defenders to search out and destroy these invaders.Each system has a memory and learns from every attack.
62Antibodies – proteins used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign invaders. Antigen – a molecule that will stimulate an immune response. They are usually proteins and parts of viruses.
63The body contains four large fluid-filled spaces. They house and protect the major internal organs.Cranial cavityThoracic cavityAbdominal cavityPelvic cavity