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Body is organized into four levels : Cells Tissues Organs Organ systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Body is organized into four levels : Cells Tissues Organs Organ systems."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Body is organized into four levels : Cells Tissues Organs Organ systems

3 Your body contains around100 trillion cells. You have more than 100 different kinds of cells. Muscle cells Nerve cells Blood cells Human egg cell CELLS

4 Stem Cells Any embryonic stem cell is capable of becoming any type of tissue found in the adult body. –There are adult stem cells but they do not divide forever and they are also already specialized.

5 Tissues 1. epithelial tissue - lines most body surfaces (skin, nails) 2. Nervous tissue - nerve cells 3. Connective Tissue - fat, cartilage, bones, tendons, blood 4. Muscle tissue - skeletal (voluntary), cardiac (involuntary) Tissues are a group of specialized cells.

6 Organs Tissues are organized into organs which have specialized functions.

7 ORGAN SYSTEMS Organs are grouped into organ systems, in which several organs interact to perform a specific function, such as digestion. 1. Circulatory 2. Digestive 3. Nervous 4. Endocrine 5. Reproductive 6. Integumentary 7. Skeletal 8. Respiratory 9. Muscular 10. Excretory 11. Immune

8 Many organs are a part of multiple organ systems.

9 Skeletal System

10 Skeleton Function Supports the body, provides protection for internal organs, and enables movement The 206 bones of the skeleton are divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton

11 Axial Skeleton the skull, spine, ribs, and sternum Appendicular Skeleton the appendages or limbs: the shoulders, arms, the shoulders, arms, hips, and legs hips, and legs

12 BONE STRUCTURE made of hard compact bone surrounding porous spongy bone – Compact bone provides support – Some cavities of spongy bone contain soft tissue called bone marrow.

13 Bone Growth Early in development, skeleton is mostly cartilage Bones harden as calcium and other minerals build up Thicken and elongate as development continues Severe bone loss can lead to a condition called osteoporosis

14 JOINTS Where two bone meet Bones of a joint are held together by strong bands of connective tissue called ligaments Types of Joints: immovable joints- cranial bones in skull slightly movable joints- vertebrae, bones in rib cage freely movable joints- elbow, knees, fingers, etc.

15 Muscular System

16 The muscular system : Moves the limbs and trunk Moves substances through the body Provides structure and support for the body.

17 Three types of muscle tissue

18 Muscles and Movement Muscles are attached to bones by tendons Muscle pairs move parts of the body by pulling on bones –Flexor muscle- causes a joint to bend –Extensor muscle- causes a joint to straighten Muscle tissue contains large amounts of contractile protein filaments called actin and myosin

19 Muscle Contraction 1. Energy is required for muscles to contract 1. Energy is required for muscles to contract 2. The ATP used is usually supplied by aerobic respiration 2. The ATP used is usually supplied by aerobic respiration 3. During exercise oxygen is consumed at a sustainable, steady rate, and aerobic respiration yields most of the ATP 4. Aerobic exercise makes the heart pump more efficiently and thus increases the energy available to muscles

20 Integumentary System

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22 2. Dermis below epidermal layer, consists of nerve cells, blood vessels, hair follicles and sweat glands 1. Epidermis Outer layer of skin composed of a protein called Keratin that makes skin tough and waterproof Inner layer contains Melanin- a pigment that affects skin color These cells are damaged by the environment Anchors skin to underlying organs. Below dermis fat and connective tissue. 3. Subcutaneous tissue

23 Skin Disorders Most skin disorders are caused by damage to the epidermis Acne Skin cancer caused by overexposure to UV radiation

24 Heart Blood (hemoglobin) Blood Vessels Circulatory System

25 The circulatory system: Consists of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. It transports nutrients, hormones and gasses and rids your body of wastes.

26 Lymphatic system Consists of lymph nodes and vessels. (Tonsils, Spleen, Thymus, Bone marrow) Lymphatic system collects and recycles fluids that are leaked from the cardiovascular system. It also helps fight infections

27 Cardiovascular system Consists of blood vessels, blood and the heart. Transports materials, removes wastes, and distributes heat.

28 Blood vessels Veins bring blood to the heart and arteries carries blood from the heart. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that allow the exchange of gas, nutrients, and hormones.

29 Endothermy Enables the body to maintain homeostasis at all times Temperature is regulated by flow of blood through blood vessels just under the skin.

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31 brain Your brain uses chemical and electrical signals to communicate with the rest of your body.

32 Three major parts: cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem. Cerebrum Brain stem

33 The spinal cord - links the brain to the peripheral nervous system (which branches throughout the body). Central Nervous System – consist of brain and spinal cord

34 Nerve Cells The nervous system contains a complex network of nerve cells (neurons). Neurons structure allows it to conduct electrical signals (nerve impulses). Neurons transmit info through the body. They enable functions such as movement, thought, emotion and learning.

35 Sensory Systems

36 Respiratory System

37 We inhale Oxygen (O 2 ) and exhale Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) The reparatory system moves air into and out of the lungs Controls gas exchange between blood and the lungs. The respiratory system: Consists of the lungs, nose, mouth and trachea

38 The lungs The diaphragm – muscle that aids in respiration

39 After breathing, gases must be transported by the cardiovascular system and exchanged at the cells. Your bronchioles are some of the smallest airways in your lungs. They lead to tiny ducts that lead into elastic air sacs (alveoli), which diffuse oxygen to your bloodstream and receive carbon dioxide waste, which is then exhaled.

40 Digestive System Liver Intestine Stomach Mouth Gallbladder

41 Usable compounds from food are absorbed into capillaries in villi (in intestine). Compounds not absorbed are excreted. The digestive system: Extracts nutrients from food and then absorbs them. It removes wastes and maintains water and chemical balances.

42 Nutrients Organic nutrients include carbohydrates, fats, proteins or amino acids, and vitamins. Inorganic chemical compounds such as minerals; water and oxygen may also be considered nutrients. A nutrient is essential to an organism if it cannot be synthesized by the organism in sufficient quantities and must be obtained from an external source

43 Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and phosphorus are elements that we consume in the largest quantities. Nutrients that are not needed in large quantities are called micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals. Nutrients are needed for growth, maintenance, and repair of the body.

44 The digestive system: Consists of the mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small and large intestine. Digestive System

45 Stomach: Stores and mechanically breaks down food. Small intestine: Where most chemical digestion occurs Large intestine: No digestion takes place here, wastes are stored. Many bacteria live in the large intestine. Nutrients are absorbed in both intestines.

46 Liver: releases bile, detoxifies poisons, and helps to maintain blood sugar levels. Gall Bladder: Stores bile that helps digest food. Pancreas: Secretes enzymes that aid in digestion

47 Excretory System Kidneys Bladder

48 The excretory system: Consists of the bladder, kidneys, ureters, urethra, skin and lungs. It removes wastes from blood and regulates the concentration of bodily fluids.

49 Bladder - collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. Kidneys – help maintain homeostasis by maintaining bodily fluids and filtering the blood.

50 Reproductive System

51 Reproduction produces gametes and offspring Gametes are sex cells: eggs and sperm

52 Fertilization

53 Sperm and egg cells both have a haploid number of chromosomes.

54 Embryonic stem cells differentiate into many different types of body cells.

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56 Endocrine System

57 The endocrine system : Composed of the hypothalamus gland, pituitary gland, pancreas and many other endocrine glands. Regulates body temperature, metabolism, development, and reproduction. It also maintains homeostasis and regulates organ systems. Synthesizes and secretes hormones.

58 Pituitary gland – secretes hormones and regulates functions such as growth, blood pressure, and water and osmolarity regulation Hypothalamus gland – synthesizes and secretes neurohormones. It regulates body temperature, blood sugar, water balance, sleep and emotions. Adrenal Gland – synthesizes adrenaline. Maintains stress response.

59 Immune System Adenoids Tonsils Spleen Bone Marrow Appendix Large intestine

60 Immune system: Defends against pathogens. Consists of cells and tissues throughout your body. - White bloods cells - Vessels - Lymph nodes - Skin The immune system can recognize invading bacteria, viruses, and toxins. Each system can quickly mobilize the best defenders to search out and destroy these invaders. Each system has a memory and learns from every attack.

61 A white blood cell stalking a bacterial cell

62 Antibodies – proteins used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign invaders. Antigen – a molecule that will stimulate an immune response. They are usually proteins and parts of viruses.

63 The body contains four large fluid-filled spaces. They house and protect the major internal organs. 1.Cranial cavity 2.Thoracic cavity 3.Abdominal cavity 4.Pelvic cavity


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