Flowering Plant Lifecycles Annual – germinates, flowers set seeds and dies in one growing season Biennial- germinates grows first season, storing up energy underground. Second spring plant use energy to quickly bloom (bolting) set seed and die. Perennial grows for several seasons until mature, Blooms and sets seed for years.
Basic Plant Parts Shoot system: photosynthesis, reproduction –Stems with nodes –Leaves - axilliary bud at base of each –Flowers and fruits (cones in gymnosperms) Root system ; Anchors plant; Storage organs; absorption of water and nutrients. –Roots, root hairs –Mycorrhizae –Nitrogen fixing bacteria
Angiosperm Diversity Amborella trichopoda Water lily (Nymphaea “Rene Gerard”) Star anise (Illicium floridanum) BASAL ANGIOSPERMS HYPOTHETICAL TREE OF FLOWERING PLANTS MAGNOLIIDS Amborella Water lilies Star anise and relatives Magnoliids Monocots Eudicots Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora)
Orchid (Lemboglossum rossii) Monocot Characteristics Embryos Leaf venation Stems Root Pollen Flowers Pollen grain with one opening Root system Usually fibrous (no main root) Vascular tissue scattered Veins usually parallel One cotyledonTwo cotyledons Veins usually netlike Vascular tissue usually arranged in ring Taproot (main root) usually present Pollen grain with three openings Zucchini (Cucurbita Pepo), female (left) and male flowers Pea (Lathyrus nervosus, Lord Anson’s blue pea), a legume Dog rose (Rosa canina), a wild rose Pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii) Lily (Lilium “Enchant- ment”) Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a grass Anther Stigma California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica) Floral organs usually in multiples of three Floral organs usually in multiples of four or five Filament Ovary Eudicot Characteristics MONOCOTS EUDICOTS
Simple Plant Tissue Types Tissues- cells with a common structure and function and specialized connections. Parenchyma- Soft, rounded cells with thin primary cell walls, air spaces between cells –Many are Totipotent Cells- undifferentiated that can still divide –Some are specialized: chlorenchyma, phloem Collenchyma- irregularly thicken primary cell wall, no air spaces. Elastic support. Sclerenchyma – rigid secondary cell wall. May have no cytoplasm left: Wood, Xylem, vessels, fibers, tracheids. Also seed coat.
Plant cell wall structure Adjoining cells held together by middle lamella (polysaccharides of pectin) Cells first make thin, flexible primary cell walls. Plant cells can still enlarge / divide with primary cell wall. Some cells lay down three rigid secondary cell wall layers with ligin inside primary cell wall. Plasmodesmata connect cytoplasm between neighboring cells through cell walls.
Cell Elongation How cellulose microfibrils are laid down determine the direct of elongation. Elongation takes place when a cell only has primary cell wall. Once proper size and shape is attained, secondary cell wall material is added inside the primary cell wall.
Plant Growth Indeterminate growth Primary growth: cells derived from the apical meristems (both root and shoot). –Makes the plant grow taller and roots deeper. –Makes leaves, flowers fruits Secondary Growth: cells derived from the lateral meristems. –Adds girth to plant –Vascular cambium makes secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem. –Cork cambium adds to bark Meristems- localized areas of cell divisions –Plants grow in zones, not all over whole organism
Apical Meristem Divides cells that form primary meristem tissues –Protoderm – further divides to make dermal layers –Procambium – divides to form xylem and phloem, residual layer becomes vascular cambium –Ground Meristem – forms pith and cortex Plants grow like building a brick wall- add bricks at top (primary growth), then add girth to sides (secondary growth).
Primary growth Herbaceous – no true wood May have tough parts – Collenchyma or Sclerenchyma. All cells derived from apical meristem Forms separate vascular bundles in stem.
You fall madly in love with you’re a lab mate in 131 – and hand in hand you both carve you initials 4 feet off the ground on the Bishop Pine (Pinus muricata) in the turn-around by the LS building. The Bishop Pine grows 3 feet a year. Two years later you return to DVC after finishing up at UC Santa Cruz in Organismal Biology to visit you old favorite Biology instructor. How far off the ground are your initials then?
Secondary Growth In Ferns, Gymnosperms and Eudicots, not in monocots Vascular cambium layer begins to form. –Divides off more cells. –Cells to the inside become secondary xylem (wood) Cells to outside become secondary phloem. Adds girth, pushing outer layer farther out. Parenchyma in phloem rays fill-in space until cork cambium starts making bark.
Annular growth rings In temperate or wet /dry seasonal zones In spring new growth use a lot of water, xylem cells grow very large (early wood). Under water stress late in the season xylem cells very narrow (late wood). Evidence of past climates, period of drought.
Monocot and Eu-dicot Monocots do not have secondary growth. –Palm trees, bamboo - not true wood!! We’ll compare anatomical variation between these groups in lab –Learn differences between monocot, dicot anatomy of leaves, stems, roots.