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1 Children The Early Years by Anita Decker Chapter 4 Pregnancy.

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1 1 Children The Early Years by Anita Decker Chapter 4 Pregnancy

2 2 Objectives Describe what happens during conception Explain how genetic factors affect prenatal development Describe how a person inherits traits through genes List the three different types of multiple pregnancies Describe the three main stages of prenatal development.

3 3  Go to  Review the information.  Play one of the games.

4 4

5 5 The Menstrual Cycle Resources

6 6  The average menstrual cycle is 28 to 32 days.  Some women have longer or shorter cycles, so the exact timing of ovulation can vary.  Here’s an overview of a typical 28-day menstrual cycle.

7 7 Day 1: Menstruation Your cycle begins on the first day of blood flow. Day 2-14: Follicular Phase You cervical mucus starts to thin. Day 14: Ovulation Begins mid-cycle, but can vary between day The egg is released. Chart your basal body temperature (Your basal body temperature (BBT) is your lowest body temperature in a 24-hour period.)

8 8 Day 15-22: Luteal Phase The lining of the uterus thicken. Day 23-24: Luteal Phase Implantation of a fertilized egg can take place. Hormones produced by pregnancy may be detected by a pregnancy test. Day 25-28: Luteal Phase If pregnancy does not occur, your hormone levels begin to fall. The uterine lining sheds, resulting in your period.

9 9 9 Change in cervical fluid. Cervical fluid that resembles “egg whites” is a sign that you are near ovulation or are ovulating. Change in basal body temperature. For most women, you will see that prior to ovulation, the basal body temperature is rather consistent. Change in cervical position or firmness. The cervix goes through many changes as a woman ovulates. A woman may notice the clear signs of ovulation; her cervix will be soft, high, open and wet.

10 10  Light spotting  Slight cramping or pain on one side of the pelvis  Breast tenderness  Abdominal bloating  Increased sex drive  Heightened sense of smell, taste or vision

11 11 Cell: The smallest unit of life that is able to reproduce itself. Sperm: The male sex cell. Ovum/Egg: The female sex cell. Zygote: The single cell formed at conception. Conception: The union of the ovum/egg and sperm. Fallopian Tubes: Two hollow tubes that connect to the uterus and have fingerlike projections that reach towards each ovary. Uterus: The organ where the baby develops.

12 12 Inside Fertilization  pregnancy-fertilization_ bc

13 13

14 14  Chromosomes: rod-shaped structures, located in the nucleus of a cell, that carry genetic information. Each cell contains 46 chromosomes.  Genes: segments of a DNA molecule, located on a chromosome, that contain genetic information. Genes carry traits from parents to children.  Sex Determination is decided at the moment you conceive. These chromosomes are called “X” and “Y” chromosomes. 14

15 15 Eggs contain only “X” sex chromosomes. Sperm contain either “X” or “Y” chromosomes. The fathers contribution is the one that determines the sex of the fetus. 15

16 16 Video: Boy or Girl  boy_ bc boy_ bc

17 17  During a woman’s menstrual cycle, a single egg leaves the ovary. This is called ovulation.  At the instant fertilization occurs, sperm and egg join and put together their chromosomes, creating an embryo with a full complement of 23 pairs or a total of 46 chromosomes. 17

18 18 DNA  pregnancy-your-babys-dna_ bc pregnancy-your-babys-dna_ bc

19 19 1. Your are 35 years or older and plan to go through a pregnancy. 2. The male partner is 40 years or older. 3. You have a child with a birth defect. 4. You or your partner has a birth defect. 5. You or your partner has a history of some type of birth defect. 6. You or your partner has a family history of inherited deafness. 7. You have has recurrent miscarriages. 8. You or your partner are descended from Ashkenazi Jews (risk of Tay Sachs or Canavan’s disease). 9. You or your partner are African American (risk of sickle cell anemia). 19

20 20 Directions: Student’s will answer the following questions. You must type the information, must have the correct MLA heading, type the question and the answer. 1. What is Genetic Counseling?What is Genetic Counseling? 2. What is the philosophy of Genetic Counseling?What is the philosophy of Genetic Counseling? 3. Who is part of the genetic counseling team?Who is part of the genetic counseling team? 4. Who should see a Genetic Counselor?Who should see a Genetic Counselor? 5. What are some specific examples of issues for which Genetic Counseling is recommended?What are some specific examples of issues for which Genetic Counseling is recommended? 6. What kind of information and guidance is provided by Genetic Counselors on issues related to fertility and pregnancy?What kind of information and guidance is provided by Genetic Counselors on issues related to fertility and pregnancy? 7. What can you expect to happen at a visit to a genetic counselor?What can you expect to happen at a visit to a genetic counselor? 8. List all of your websites that you got information from.

21 21

22 22 Multiple Pregnancy … Pregnancies in which two or more babies develop. Conjoined : Ovum splits apart, but the separation is not completed. Babies are joined at some part of their bodies. Fraternal …Term describing children from multiple pregnancies who develop from two ova and differ in genetic makeup. Will look different - May be different or the same gender. Identical …Term describing children from multiple pregnancies who develop from one fertilized ovum and have the same genetic makeup. Always the same gender 22

23 23  Prenatal Development …The first stage of prenatal development, which last about two weeks after conception.  Placenta …An organ filled with blood vessels that nourishes the baby in the uterus.  Umbilical cord …The cord that connects the baby to the placenta.  Embryo …Term used to describe a baby in the embryonic stage of development. 23

24 24  Fetus …The term used to describe a baby in the fetal stage of development.  Genetic Factors …Traits that are passed through the genes.  Chromosomes …Threadlike structures that carry genes in living cells.  Amnion …A fluid-filled sac that surrounds the baby in the uterus. 24

25 25

26 26  fetal-development_ bc Inside Early Pregnancy

27 27 50 Lessons Over Easy 27

28 28 You are to watch the videos regarding pregnancy. 1. Go to 2. Click on the pregnancy tab. 3. On the right of the screen will be a listing of related video. 4. Watch the following: a. Weeks 1-9 b. Weeks c. Weeks d. Weeks Inside Pregnancy Weeks 1-37

29 29 Week 40: The Baby is Ready for Delivery

30 30 Hearing & Sight  pregnancy-how-your-baby-hears- sound_ bc pregnancy-how-your-baby-hears- sound_ bc  pregnancy-your-babys-sight-and-eye- color_ bc

31 31

32 32  Some birth defects can be diagnosed before birth. Some prenatal tests that can be taken are:  Ultrasound  Amniocentesis  Chronic villus sampling

33 33  Advances in prenatal therapy now make it possible to treat some birth defects before birth.  Prenatal surgery – urinary-tract blockages, rare tumors in the lungs, Spina bifida, ph disease,

34 34 1. Malformations present at birth defects such as congenital heart malformation, Spina bifida (open spine), cleft palate, clubfoot 2. Inborn errors of metabolism Defects such as PKU, Tay Sachs disease 3. Blood Disorders Defects such as sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, thalassemia. 4. Chromosomal Abnormalities Conditions such as Down’s Syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Turner Syndrome. 5. Prenatal damage Cases include certain infections, drugs, maternal disorders such as diabetes, high blood pressure, Rh disease, umbilical cord accidents, difficult labor or delivery, premature birth.

35 35  NutritionAlcohol  SmokingDrugs  STDsRubella  ParasitesRadiation

36 36 Student’s will work on the Genetic Disorder: Pompe Disease. This will be a power point assignment.

37 37  Test…Ch. 4 Pregnancy


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