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1 Hair Care Products Assoc. Prof. Dr.Pleumchitt Rojanapanthu Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Hair Care Products Assoc. Prof. Dr.Pleumchitt Rojanapanthu Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Hair Care Products Assoc. Prof. Dr.Pleumchitt Rojanapanthu Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

2 2 Hair Care Products : Shampoos Hair sprays Conditioners Hair gels “2 in 1” shampoos Perming solutions Hair dyes., etc. Hair dyes., etc.

3 3 ShampoosShampoos Purpose of shampoo is to clean hair Customer also expect a dense and luxurious lather Basic or primary surfactants are backbone of the cleansing products are necessary

4 4 ShampoosShampoos Shampoos can be made in various physical form: Liquids, creams, paste, aerosol and dry Liquids, creams, paste, aerosol and dry majority are liquids, either clear or pearlised majority are liquids, either clear or pearlised The principle constituents of most liquid shampoos can be classified as : Primary detergents Primary detergents Secondary detergents Secondary detergents Thickeners Thickeners

5 5 FoamersFoamers foam stabilizers and boosterfoam stabilizers and booster PerfumesPerfumes PreservativesPreservatives Diluents (usually water)Diluents (usually water) conditioning agentsconditioning agents Shampoos (con.)

6 6 Other additives (functional or otherwise)Other additives (functional or otherwise) pearlisers / opacifierspearlisers / opacifiers colourscolours Remark : many ingredients are multifunctional and therefore do not clearly fall into any one category Shampoos (con.)

7 7 The surfactants used in a shampoo need to be selected on the basis of a whole range of properties including: costscosts foam heightfoam height foam texturefoam texture detergencydetergency Shampoos (con.)

8 8 irritancyirritancy ease of handling and mixingease of handling and mixing compatibility with other ingredientscompatibility with other ingredients colorcolor odorodor puritypurity biodegradabilitybiodegradability Shampoos (con.)

9 9 Surfactants Basic anionic surfactants Basic anionic surfactants (Primary, anionic surfactants) Mild anionic surfactants Mild anionic surfactants (Secondary, anionic surfactants) Amphoteric surfactants Amphoteric surfactants Nonionic surfactants Nonionic surfactants Cationic surfactants Cationic surfactants

10 10 Basic surfactants are most widely used surfactants Exhibit well balanced properties Excellent foamer, through the foam structure is relatively coarse Low CMC (critical micelle concentration) ideal for cleansing preparation 1. Alky ether sulfates (R- (OCHCH 2 ) x SO 4 M) 1. Alky ether sulfates (R- (OCHCH 2 ) x SO 4 M) Basic surfactants

11 11 Ideal behavior regarding foam and detergency Be easily thickened with salt Show good water solubility Skin and eye compatibility is acceptable Lauryl ether sulfate / sod. Laureth sulfate Basic surfactants (con.)

12 12 2. Alkyl sulfates (R-SO 4 m) The first synthetic surfactant Still most popular Excellent foamer Producing rich and creamy foam

13 13 A mixture alkene of sulfonates and hydroxy alkane sulfonates Milder than alkyl sulfonate Similar irritation to the alkyl ether sulfate Stable both in acidic and alkali pH values 3.  - Olefin sulfonates

14 14 Mild Anionic Surfactants (Secondary surfactants) The purpose is to improve skin and eye compatibility of the formulation Mild surfactant usually show reduction of foaming and cleansing compared with basic surfactant

15 15 Sulfosuccinate Derivative of sulfosuccinic acid both mono and diesters Most popular derivative used in Europe is disodium laureth sufosuccinate Good foamer and relatively cheap Instability in both low and high pH value Stable at pH 6-6.5

16 16 Cocoyl isethionate (RCOOH-CH 2 -CH 2 -SO 3 Na) Mainly used as a surfactant in syndet bars Improve skin compatibility Excellent skin compatibility and emolliency properties Using in baby products and in facical wash formulations Maximum stability at pH 5-7

17 17 Alkyl ether carboxylates (R-(OCH 2 -CH 2 ) x -OCH 2 -COOM) Mild surfactant, reduce foaming and cleansing Skin compatibility is similar to that of alky; ether sulfate Stable at low pH value

18 18 Magnesium surfactant Have significantly better skin compatibility > Sod., amm. and amine neutralized Show high foaming and excellent cleansing properties Their applicational properties are practically unchanged compared with the sodium foam Magnesium ion increase the resistant of microbe

19 19 Alkyl phosphate Mono alkyl phosphate is good surfactant Show high foam with mildness to skin Suitable for mild shampoo and show both Di- and tri- are known as emulsifier

20 20 Amphoteric surfactants The charge changes as a function of pH value of the formulation Build complex with anionic surfactant Exhibit milder properties than individual

21 21 Alkyl betaines Can be cationic or anionic depend on pH At pH 5-7 as in shampoo, they form ionic complex with anionic surfactant Improve the skin compatibility of an anionic formulation The size of micelle viscosity The size of micelle viscosity Can improve foaming of a formulation (often use for thickening the formulation) Improve structure of the foam finer and creamy

22 22 Alkylamido betaines Amino betaines are milder than alkyl betaines Lower price Much more often use in cosmetics

23 23 Acylamphoglycinates and acylamphopropionates Most important products are coco derivative Good skin compatibility Show some conditioning properties in shampoos Excellent foamer but is not stable in hard water

24 24 Amino oxides Amino oxides are never anionic Show cationic, non-ionic depend on pH in combination with anionics can act as a foam booster and improve the foam structure Good thickener for ionic surfactant Are good conditioning agents in hair rinsing

25 25 Non-ionic surfactant Poor foaming used in shampoo Often adds as solubilizers for perfume Extraordinary mildness, used as the main surfactant in ‘non-sting’ baby-shampoo Ethoxylated products

26 26 Alkyl polyglycoside (APG) Not as good as anionic surfactant Shows good foaming properties Excellent skin compatibility Normally use for secondary surfactant

27 27 “frequent use” shampoos contain higher levels of milder secondary surfactants many secondary surfactants exhibit lower irritation to skin and eyes many secondary surfactants exhibit lower irritation to skin and eyes small addition of secondary surfactant can lead to a significant decrease irritation small addition of secondary surfactant can lead to a significant decrease irritation Shampoos (con.)

28 28 Evaluation of Detergents as Shampoo Bases Ease of spreading Ease of spreading Lathering power Lathering power Efficient soil removal Efficient soil removal Ease of rinsing Ease of rinsing

29 29 Evaluation of Bases Ease of combing wet hair Ease of combing wet hair Lustre of the hair Lustre of the hair Speed of drying Speed of drying Ease of combing and setting the dry hair Ease of combing and setting the dry hair Safety of shampoo Safety of shampoo

30 30 DetergencyDetergency Detergency : the removal of dirt, involving the following processes : ability to wet both the dirt and substrate ability to wet both the dirt and substrate reducing the interfacial tension reducing the interfacial tension dispersing the dirt particles dispersing the dirt particles

31 31 Shampoos Additives High viscosity is very important both for Product stability Handling The product should have viscosity between 400 and 4000 m Pas Thickeners

32 32 Pearlescent products should have minimum viscosity of 2,000 m pas it avoid precipitation Ether sulfate + electrolytes (Cl - ) viscosity by the size of the micelle Alkanolamide the cloud point of the formulation Thickeners (con.)

33 33 Using the special high molecular weight thickener ; PEG 6,000, PEG 120 It is either product, remain stable against hydrolysis at higher temperature or extreme pH values Polymer thickener Natural gum Cellulose derivative Thickeners (con.)

34 34 Foam stabilizer In the present of oil, such as sebum, In the present of oil, such as sebum, Monoethanolamines are the most effective

35 35 Pearlescent agents Ethylene glycol mono and ditearate (EGMS,EGDS) are most often used in surfactant formulations. They have to be incorporate at high temperature (70 -75) Ready – made liquid pearlescent bases are now popular

36 36 Shampoo with anionic surfactants leave hair difficult to comb while wet fly- away when comb after drying Addition of conditioning agents wet – combability wet – combability static charge static charge Conditioning agents

37 37 Cationic surfactants show good properties but incompatable with anionic surfactants Using quaternized polymer : quaternize hydroxyethyl cellulose (Poly quaternize 10) compatible with most anionic surfactant Show excellent conditioning properties Conditioning agents (con.)

38 38 Impart manage-ability and body to hair very low concentrations are sufficient Due to its very high substantively to hair, very low concentrations (0.5%) are sufficient High concentration may lead to over- conditioning and build up on the hair Conditioning agents (con.)

39 39 Small amount of fatty component : fatty alcohol, monoglyceride can support condition effect of shampoo Small amount of fatty component : fatty alcohol, monoglyceride can support condition effect of shampoo Silicone can be very effective conditioners, but are very difficult to incorporate and may act as antifoaming agents Conditioning agents (con.)

40 40 Thickeners and foam stabilizers  Alkalonamides or their alternatives  Polymeric materials  Electrolytes Many of these ingredients are multifunctional, and most product use more than one.

41 41  Some surfactants systems are difficult to thicken not responding well to electrolyte additions  most surfactants systems are non- Newtonian, exhibit shear – thinning shear – thickening time – dependence time – independence yield point etc. Thickeners (con.)

42 42 Ultimate test viscosity should be carefully considered Various raw materials manufactures have developed  PEG derivatives  Polymeric material : natural gums Gum-thickened product have a different Rheology to otherwise similar different Rheology to otherwise similar electrolyte-thickened product electrolyte-thickened product Thickeners (con.)

43 43 Temperature effect is less for gum systems than for an electrolyte-thickened system This can be useful when formulating for climates where the product might be subjected to large temperature variations in storage, distribution and use Thickeners (con.)

44 44 Gum will often stabilize foam by strengthening the film at the air/liquid interfaces in the matrix of bubbles Making foam feel denser (creamy) in use It is sometimes apparent as soon as the shampoo is poured into the hand Thickeners (con.)

45 45 Some disadvantages high cost lengthened processing time (with higher energy consumption if hot process is used) difficulty of making viscosity adjustment This problem can often overcome by using a This problem can often overcome by using a small amount of electrolyte for final viscosity small amount of electrolyte for final viscosity adjustments. adjustments.

46 46 Effect of electrolyte on viscosity of surfactant systems ionic density of the solution ionic density of the solution consequent effect on micelle size and shape Adding an electrolyte with the same cation as that of primary anionic surfactant in the system e.g:amm.chloride  amm.lauryl sulfate sod. chloride  sod.lauryl ether sulfate

47 47 Addition of electrolyte beyond a certain point will cause thinning, quite rapid and  The maximum in viscosity depends on: Concentration presence of alkalotamides level of free fatty alcohol effect of the perfumes Effect of electrolyte (con.)

48 48 Maximum viscosity occurs at low concentration of electrolyte when free fatty ether and alkalonamides are present Due to formation of mixed micelles Should have experimental for the relationship of viscosity and electrolyte concentration Effect of electrolyte (con.)

49 49 PreservativesPreservatives Ensure that the products contain no pathogenic … Variety of preservatives are available: parabens Imidazolidinyl ureas 2-Bromo-2-nitropropane-,1,3-diol5-Bromo-5-noitro-1,3-dioxane Dimethyl dimethylol (DMDM) hydantoin

50 50  Methyl chloroisothiazodlione and methylisothiazodlione methylisothiazodlione  Pohenoxethanol  Drazolidinyl urea  Methy dibromoglutatonitrile  Questernium – 15  Sodium iodate  Glutaraldehyde Preservatives (con.)

51 51 Many surfactants used for shampoo manufacture are already preserved Addition of preservatives must be taken into account Challenge test of the finished product must be performed Preservatives (con.)

52 52 Opacification of shampoos usually for aesthetic reason An occasionally a useful technique to use when the product can’t be made completely clear Opacifier and pearliser

53 53 Adding a small of fine, intensely white polymer dispersion For ease of dispersion and subsequent product stability dilution of the opacifer to a 10% solution with water before addition to the main mix Opacification may be achieved simply by Opacifier (con.)

54 54 Buying a ready made pearlised base (need dilution before adding) Adding the chosen pearlising agents to the hot mix (most commonly ethylene glycol mono-desperate) Buying a highly concentrated pearlising agent in a liquid or semi-liquid form that may be added as a cold mix Three common used ways achieving Pearlescence using stearate Three common used ways achieving Pearlescence using stearate

55 55 1.Composition of stearate ester 2.Presence of alkanolamides and other materials 3.Rate of cooling 4.Shear rate of stirring 5.Composition of the base Factors affecting the appearance of the ‘pearl’ Factors affecting the appearance of the ‘pearl’

56 56 The majority of active conditioning agents are cationic surfactants, incompatible with anionic surfactants which are the basis of nearly all shampoos The properties of both cationic and anionic can be modified Conditioning agents

57 57 Variety other materials have been used as conditioning agents in shampoo Various vegetable oil Vitamin Lanolin and its derivative Herbal extracts Some specialty silicone

58 58 ColorColor Using color which meet both EC and US specifications whenever possible Using color which meet both EC and US specifications whenever possible Higher purity colors are more expensive than technical grades Higher purity colors are more expensive than technical grades Color stability should be considered Color stability should be considered Color fading can be minimize by adding a suitable UV absorber Color fading can be minimize by adding a suitable UV absorber

59 59 Water  soluble absorbers usually work best in shampoos  Bensophenone-4 and 2 ( %) Color should be added in solution, not as solid material Color should be added in solution, not as solid material Aqueous solution color required preservative Aqueous solution color required preservative Water  soluble absorbers usually work best in shampoos  Bensophenone-4 and 2 ( %) Color should be added in solution, not as solid material Color should be added in solution, not as solid material Aqueous solution color required preservative Aqueous solution color required preservative

60 60 SequestrantsSequestrants Such as EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra- acetic acid) salts added in low level Such as EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra- acetic acid) salts added in low level To aid rinsing in hard water To aid rinsing in hard water To boost the efficiency of preservative To boost the efficiency of preservative

61 61 Anti-build-up shampoos Are formulate to help remove excess build-up of conditioning agents and styling aids Are formulate to help remove excess build-up of conditioning agents and styling aids

62 62 Hair conditioners Means many things to many people : Means many things to many people : Reduction of fly-away Reduction of fly-away Gloss Gloss Sheen Sheen Manageability Manageability Ease of handling Ease of handling Simply general overall appearance Simply general overall appearance Conditioning

63 63 Conditioner should impart the condition of the hair as follow : Conditioner should impart the condition of the hair as follow : Improved wet and dry combing Improved wet and dry combing Reduced fly-away (antistatic) Reduced fly-away (antistatic) Increase gloss and volume Increase gloss and volume Improve curled retention Improve curled retention Repair the damage of hair shaft Repair the damage of hair shaft Increase moisturing Increase moisturing

64 64 Primary surfactants (nearly always cationic) Primary surfactants (nearly always cationic) Polymers Polymers Bodying agents Bodying agents Auxiliary emulsifiers Auxiliary emulsifiers Oily components Oily components Other ‘active’ ingredients Other ‘active’ ingredients Basic ingredients in the formulation

65 65 Thickeners Thickeners Perfumes Perfumes Preservative Preservative Diluents (usually water) Diluents (usually water) Colors Colors Other non-functional ingredient Other non-functional ingredient Conditioners (con.)

66 66 The most common active ingredients: The most common active ingredients: quaternary ammonium compound (quats) quaternary ammonium compound (quats) properties related to charge density properties related to charge density Highly charged cationic will be more strongly attracted to the negatively charged hair surface Highly charged cationic will be more strongly attracted to the negatively charged hair surface Cationic surfactants

67 67 On the hair surface, the number, shape and size of the fatty chain in mol. are determinants On the hair surface, the number, shape and size of the fatty chain in mol. are determinants Two fatty acid chains > lubricity than one chain Two fatty acid chains > lubricity than one chain Long chain > effective lubricant than short chain Long chain > effective lubricant than short chain Cationic surfactants (con.)

68 68 Conditioners are perceived to be more effective when thick and creamy Conditioners are perceived to be more effective when thick and creamy Using high level of fatty alcohol along with other waxy esters Using high level of fatty alcohol along with other waxy esters Bodying agents

69 69 Some quats are good emulsifiers, some are not Some quats are good emulsifiers, some are not Incompatibility with anionic surfactants Incompatibility with anionic surfactants Surfactants emulsion stability can’t be obtained with cationic alone Surfactants emulsion stability can’t be obtained with cationic alone Non-ionic surfactants are in used Non-ionic surfactants are in used Choosing 2 surfactants : should consider HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance) Choosing 2 surfactants : should consider HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance) Auxiliary emulsifiers

70 70 Should be considered the effect of oil on : Should be considered the effect of oil on : Ease of manufactures Ease of manufactures Product stability Product stability Using at typically low level, less affecting stability Using at typically low level, less affecting stability Small quantities of exotic oil with attractive names may be included Small quantities of exotic oil with attractive names may be included Oil components

71 71 Salt solution are in used Salt solution are in used Add only very small amount at a time (viscosity will peak at low concentration than in shampoo) Add only very small amount at a time (viscosity will peak at low concentration than in shampoo) Add salt solution when emulsion is cold (maximum 30 o C) Add salt solution when emulsion is cold (maximum 30 o C) Use dilute salt solution (10% max) add very slow with continue stirring Use dilute salt solution (10% max) add very slow with continue stirring Small amount of salt solution with high-shear mixing Small amount of salt solution with high-shear mixing Try a small batch and scale up carefully Try a small batch and scale up carefully Thickeners

72 72 Using two phases method Using two phases method Heating oil and water phases Heating oil and water phases Combining together Combining together Cooling process Cooling process According to high water phase /oil ratio According to high water phase /oil ratio Only part of water is heated is formed Only part of water is heated is formed a concentrate emulsion Adding the rest of water at cold stage Adding the rest of water at cold stage Manufacturing

73 73 Clear Conditioners Using aqueous solution of quarts, polymers, or both Using aqueous solution of quarts, polymers, or both Conditioning other active ingredients such as : Conditioning other active ingredients such as : Parthenol, water-soluble silicone derivative Parthenol, water-soluble silicone derivative Thickening by electrolyte as shampoo Thickening by electrolyte as shampoo Developing quite strong lather Developing quite strong lather

74 74 “2-in-1” shampoos - contain both cleansing and high levels of conditioning agents - over 20% shampoos are sold of this type - silicone is the basic substance derive from natural substances

75 75 How 2-in-1 formulations work: (1) surfactant molecules (blue)and conditioner particles (pink) surround the hair; each conditioner particle is trapped inside a crystal 'cage'

76 76 (2) The surfactant molecules are attracted to the dirt on the hair surface and lift it away, leaving the hair clean

77 77 (3) When the hair is rinsed, the conditioner particles are released from their 'cages'; they are not washed away but, because of their electrical charge (+), they are drawn towards the (-) charges of the hair

78 78 4) They cling to the hair, smoothing out any roughness on the surface and protecting the cuticle

79 79 Hair thickener Hair can be made thicken by Hair can be made thicken by Causing it to swell Causing it to swell Coating it to increase its diameter Coating it to increase its diameter Hair will be swollen in water / more under alkali conditions Hair will be swollen in water / more under alkali conditions Powerful humectants may be used to increase moisture content of hair Powerful humectants may be used to increase moisture content of hair Application of panthenol solution cause the swelling of hair Application of panthenol solution cause the swelling of hair

80 80 Various description terms : Various description terms : Light hold, medium hold, strong hold, ultra hold, mega hold Light hold, medium hold, strong hold, ultra hold, mega hold The main ingredients in hair sprays are : The main ingredients in hair sprays are : Polymer Solvent Polymer Solvent Plastizer Neutralizer Plastizer Neutralizer Perfume Other addition Perfume Other addition Styling aids Hair Sprays, Hair gels

81 81 Ideal hair spray polymer should be soluble in ethanol Ideal hair spray polymer should be soluble in ethanol Hydrophilic enough is be easily removed from hair by shampooing Hydrophilic enough is be easily removed from hair by shampooing Hydrophilic enough to compatible hydrocation propellants Hydrophilic enough to compatible hydrocation propellants Polymers

82 82 Should give powerful hold without brittleness Should give powerful hold without brittleness Easily remove by combing or brushing Easily remove by combing or brushing Must be good adhesion and not sticky Must be good adhesion and not sticky For example : For example : Vinyl pyrrolidone derivative Vinyl pyrrolidone derivative Vinyl acetate Vinyl acetateetc. Polymers (con.)

83 83 Solvent Non-aerosol product Non-aerosol product Ethanol alone or slightly dilute with water Ethanol alone or slightly dilute with water Excellent solvent for most resins Excellent solvent for most resins The addition of water to solvent system may be necessary: The addition of water to solvent system may be necessary: To improve water solubility of ingredients To improve water solubility of ingredients To retard evaporation salt To retard evaporation salt To reduce cause To reduce cause To prevent perception from on acid-resin based system To prevent perception from on acid-resin based system

84 84 Plasticizers Using to modify the properties of polymer flim Using to modify the properties of polymer flim Making it more flexible Making it more flexible Only small quantities are normally required Only small quantities are normally required (0.5% of dry weight polymer) For examples: For examples: Ester Ester Various silicone Various silicone Protein Protein Polyol Polyol Lanolin derivatives Lanolin derivatives

85 85 Neutralizer Calculated from the acid value of the resin Calculated from the acid value of the resin Can be obtained from polymer Can be obtained from polymer

86 86 Majority of gels on the market are aqueous/ aqueous alcoholic Majority of gels on the market are aqueous/ aqueous alcoholic Carboxyvinyl polymer are the most important/ carbomer 940 Carboxyvinyl polymer are the most important/ carbomer 940 Create the clear gel foamCreate the clear gel foam Have some fixative powerHave some fixative power Contribute to overall hold of the formulationContribute to overall hold of the formulation As a primative film formerAs a primative film former Hair Gels

87 87 Carbomer 940 gives the clearest gel Carbomer 940 gives the clearest gel Degrades by UV light: loss of viscosity and clarityDegrades by UV light: loss of viscosity and clarity Overcome by adding UV absorberOvercome by adding UV absorber Sensitive with metal ion => catalyst gel to be degradeSensitive with metal ion => catalyst gel to be degrade Addition of EDTA is an effective wayAddition of EDTA is an effective way Hair gels (con.)

88 88 Permanent Waving Mode of action is as follows: Reduction of –S-S- bonds between cystine amino acid groping on an adjacent polypeptides chains Reduction of –S-S- bonds between cystine amino acid groping on an adjacent polypeptides chains Reassignments of hair into its new position Reassignments of hair into its new position Reforming of the –S-S- bonds by oxidation the various –SH residues will be linked into new partners on the adjacent chains Reforming of the –S-S- bonds by oxidation the various –SH residues will be linked into new partners on the adjacent chains

89 89 Factor affecting the efficacy of the product Processing time Processing time Processing temperature Processing temperature Concentration of reducing agent Concentration of reducing agent Ratio of lotion to hair quantities Ratio of lotion to hair quantities Penetration of the lotion Penetration of the lotion pH pH The nature and the condition of untreated hair The nature and the condition of untreated hair

90 90 Permanent waving Waving lotion are available in various physical foams Waving lotion are available in various physical foams Clear, cloudy liquid, cream or lotion, gel or thickened liquid Clear, cloudy liquid, cream or lotion, gel or thickened liquid Using low conductivity, demineralised water Using low conductivity, demineralised water Using equipment made of 316 grade stainless steel or prolypropylene for all contact parts Using equipment made of 316 grade stainless steel or prolypropylene for all contact parts Avoiding heavy metal contamination which may be decompose the products and produce discoloration Avoiding heavy metal contamination which may be decompose the products and produce discoloration

91 91 The addtion of sequestrans is needed The addtion of sequestrans is needed Emulsion type or gel-type product: Emulsion type or gel-type product: Required hot processingRequired hot processing Thioglycollate should be added last after cooling the mixThioglycollate should be added last after cooling the mix Permantent waving (con.)

92 92 The products can be extreme: The products can be extreme: The products is at high pH and strong reducingThe products is at high pH and strong reducing The sulfphide odour emitted during processing of the hair are very hard to maskThe sulfphide odour emitted during processing of the hair are very hard to mask Permantent waving (con.)

93 93 Neutralisation The reforming of the –S-S- bonds by oxidation The reforming of the –S-S- bonds by oxidation Oxidation is commonly carried out by hydrogen peroxide (easier using than the other oxidizing agent) Oxidation is commonly carried out by hydrogen peroxide (easier using than the other oxidizing agent) With a surfactant added to enhance penetration With a surfactant added to enhance penetration The solution may be clouded or produced in form of a pourable emulsion The solution may be clouded or produced in form of a pourable emulsion

94 94 Bromated, the second most popular type of neutralizer Bromated, the second most popular type of neutralizer Since both waving lotion and neutralizers Since both waving lotion and neutralizers Usually have guite extreme pHs and exhibit considerable redox potential Usually have guite extreme pHs and exhibit considerable redox potential They are not particularly susceptible microbiological contamination They are not particularly susceptible microbiological contamination Neutralisation (con.)

95 95 Effect of Air and Sunlight

96 96 Hair dyes Temporary, semi-permanent, permanent dyes Temporary, semi-permanent, permanent dyes Temporary dyes Temporary dyes  Any soluble colors can be used  The color does not penetrate to the hair shaft  Complete removable by a single shampoo

97 97 Another mean is by using color spray organic and inorganic pigments can be suspended in gum-thickened or emulsion base Another mean is by using color spray organic and inorganic pigments can be suspended in gum-thickened or emulsion base Hair dyes (con.)

98 98 Semi-permanent dyes Using dyestuffs whose cationic characteristic gives them a natural affinity of hair Using dyestuffs whose cationic characteristic gives them a natural affinity of hair Metallised dyes are not very compatible with salt Metallised dyes are not very compatible with salt The blend of amphoteric, cationic, non-ionic surfactants with low salt levels is preferred The blend of amphoteric, cationic, non-ionic surfactants with low salt levels is preferred Performance may be enhanced by the inclusion of solvents Performance may be enhanced by the inclusion of solvents

99 99 Water causes considerable swelling of the hair shaft Water causes considerable swelling of the hair shaft Aqueous solution with some solvents cause even more Aqueous solution with some solvents cause even more leading is greatly increasd dye uptake leading is greatly increasd dye uptake  Hair has more pores near the end than the root  Treated hair has more porous than untreated hair Semi-permanent dyes (con.)

100 100 Permanent hair dyes Permanent or oxidation dyes Permanent or oxidation dyes Consist of two parts Consist of two parts - A dye intermediate solution and oxidizing agent - A dye intermediate solution and oxidizing agent - The latter always being hydrogenperoxide - The latter always being hydrogenperoxide  Dye intermediates are blended of primary intermediates and coupling agents or modifiers in a suitable base

101 101 During the permanent dying of hair, the dye intermediate solution and oxidizing solution are mixed and applied to the hair During the permanent dying of hair, the dye intermediate solution and oxidizing solution are mixed and applied to the hair The primary intermediate are gradually oxidized The primary intermediate are gradually oxidized Then undergo coupling reaction with modifier Then undergo coupling reaction with modifier Permanent hair dyes (con.)

102 102 The primary intermediate are all small molecules can penetrate the hair shaft, particularly the wet, alkali conditions during the hair application The primary intermediate are all small molecules can penetrate the hair shaft, particularly the wet, alkali conditions during the hair application The oxidation and coupling reactions produce much larger molecules The oxidation and coupling reactions produce much larger molecules Many of which are then “trapped” in the hair shaft Many of which are then “trapped” in the hair shaft Thereby making the effect permanent Thereby making the effect permanent Permanent hair dyes (con.)

103 103 Some general remarks about product development: 1.Make sure that the discussion is clear, the brief should include, as minimum : the brief should include, as minimum : Require performance parametersRequire performance parameters in as much detail as possible

104 104 General remarks (con.) * Benchmark product, unless the development is in a completely new area * Guidelines on costs * Purpose claims * The required timing

105 Do not produce a Rolls Royce when a mini would be sufficient 2. Do not use new raw materials if one from existing stocks will do 3. Specification often appear virtually identical alternative sources of supplier should be investigated General remarks (con.)

106 Ensure reproducibility on scale up making use of suitable plant and equipment 5. Keep formulations as simple as possible 6. Try to develop products which can be made as cheap as possible: with minimum energy requirement with minimum energy requirement minimum time for processing minimum time for processing General remarks (con.)

107 107


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