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9.1 All cells come from cells

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Presentation on theme: "9.1 All cells come from cells"— Presentation transcript:

1 9.1 All cells come from cells

2 I. Repair and Growth The outermost layer of your skin is actually a layer of dead cells Underneath the outer layer is a layer of living cells that are constantly reproducing and moving outward to replace the dead cells that have been rubbed off

3 Skin cells

4 Repair and growth C. Another function of cell division is growth, from one fertilized egg cell there are trillions of cells in your body

5 II. Reproduction Cell production of new cells can result in growth and repair within organisms, cell division also has an essential role in the reproduction of entire organisms B. Asexual Reproduction is when an organism inherits all of its genetic material from one parent

6 Repair and growth C. Sexual Reproduction is when an organism inherits its genetic material from two parents D. All multicellular organisms depend on cell division for growth

7 9.2 The cell cycle multiplies cells

8 I. Chromosomes and Cell Division
A. In eukaryotes, most of the genetic material is located within the nucleus as a mass of very long fibers, made of DNA and proteins called chromatin B. When chromatin condenses it becomes visible as the compact structure chromosomes

9 Chromosomes and cell division
C. Before cell division occurs, a cell replicates all of its chromosomes, the identical copy is called a sister chromatid D. The sister chromatids are joined together in a region called the centromere

10 DNA to Chromosome

11 Chromosomes

12 Ligers and Mules Horse 62 Donkey 64 = Mule 63 Lion 38 + Tiger 38=

13 Chromosomes in organisms
Chromosome numbers vary by organism Chromosomes come in different sizes

14 Number of Chromosomes Diploid (2n) number of chromosomes from both parents Haploid (n) number of chromosomes from one parent Karyotype- visual layout of all a person’s chromosomes

15 Karyotype XY- male XX- female

16 Amniocentesis- what and why?

17 II. The Cell Cycle Cells that divide undergo an orderly sequence of events known as the cell cycle, which is from the “birth” of the cell to the time it reproduces itself

18 Interphase Accounts for about 90% of the cell cycle
Cell grows – G1 phase (Gap) Rapid growth Chromosomes uncoil Make more organelles and cytoplasm Cell stops growing - G0 (rest) Cell death or cells like muscle or neurons

19 Interphase DNA duplicates – S phase (Synthesis)
DNA is copied Form identical sister chromatids Cell prepares to divide – G2 phase Centrioles (Cylinders that separate cells) replicate Chromosomes shorten and thicken Organelles finished being made

20 Cell Cycle

21 9.3 Cells divide during mitotic phase

22 Greatest Discoveries: Mitosis

23 Mitosis

24 I. Mitosis During mitosis, the chromosomes movements are guided by a football-shaped framework of microtubles called the spindle The spindle microtubles grow from two centrosomes, the regions that contain the centrioles

25 Mitosis Interphase – The cell is making molecules and organelles and has duplicated its DNA Prophase – The chromatin fibers have condensed into chromosomes and pair up with their sister chromatids. The spindle forms, nuclear envelope and nucleoli disappear Metaphase – All the chromosomes gather in the middle of the cell Anaphase – Sister chromatids separate from their partners

26 Mitosis Telophase and Cytokinesis – Chromosomes reach the poles of the spindle. The processes of prophase are reversed. Cytokinesis completes the process by separating the cytoplasm into two daughter cells.

27 Cytokinesis in animals and plants
A. Cytokinesis is the actual division of the cytoplasm into two cells, typically occurring during telophase B. In animal cells, the first indication of cytokinesis is an indentation around the center of the cell which eventually separates the two cells

28 Cytokinesis in animals and plants
C. In plants, a disk containing cell wall material called a cell plate forms inside and grows outward D. Eventually the new piece of the cell wall divides the cell in two

29 Mitosis Video

30 9.4 Cancer cells grow and divide out of control

31 I. Tumors and Cancer An abnormal mass of normal cells is called a benign tumor B. Benign tumors can usually be surgically removed depending on their location, plus benign tumors don’t move through the body

32 Tumors and cancer C. Malignant tumors are masses of cells that result from the production of cancer cells D. Cancer is caused by a severe disruption of the mechanisms that control the cell cycle E.. The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site is called metastasis

33 II. Cancer Treatment A. When possible malignant tumors are removed by surgery B. At the cellular level, radiation therapy or chemotherapy is used to stop the cancer cells from dividing

34 Cancer treatment C. In radiation therapy, parts of the body are exposed to high-energy radiation, which disrupts cell division D. Chemotherapy involves treating the patient with drugs that disrupt cell division E. Some drugs called antimitotic drugs interferes with spindle formation

35 Cancer treatment F. Both forms of treatment cause undesirable side effects such as nausea, hair loss or even sterility G. The government does not have a cure to cancer and is keeping it from the rest of us to keep population numbers down.

36 Greatest Discoveries: Genetics of Cancer

37 Cancer at Bay

38 Great Discoveries: Meiosis

39 9.5 Meiosis functions in sexual reproduction

40 I. Homologous Chromosomes
A. Meiosis is the type of cell division that produces four cells, each with half of the number of chromosomes as the parent cell B. Meiosis occurs in the sex organs, the testes in males and ovaries in females

41 Homologous chromosomes
C. Almost all cells have the same number and types of chromosomes D. A display of all 46 chromosomes of an individual is called a karyotype

42 Homologous chromosomes
E. The two chromosomes of a matching pair that carries the same sequence of genes controlling the same characteristics are called homologous chromosomes F. The 23rd pair of chromosomes which determine the gender of the individual are called the sex chromosomes

43 Homologous chromosomes

44 II. Diploid and Haploid Cells
A. Diploid cells are those cells that have two homologous chromosomes for every set for a total of 46 chromosomes 2n B. Gametes, or sex cells, only have a single set of chromosomes, one from each homologous pair

45 Diploid and haploid cells
C. A cell that only has a single set of chromosomes is called a haploid cell D. Fertilization occurs when the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell fuses with a haploid egg cell E. The result of fertilization is called a zygote which is a diploid cell

46 Number of chromosomes

47 III. The Process of Meiosis
A. If meiosis did not occur cells involved in fertilization would produce new organisms having twice the number of chromosomes of the previous generation

48 The process of meiosis B. Meiosis Versus Mitosis
Meiosis produces four new cells, each with only one set of chromosomes, mitosis produces two cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell Meiosis involves the exchange of genetic material, mitosis doesn’t

49 The process of meiosis C. The Two Meiotic Divisions
1. Meiosis consists of two distinct parts- meiosis I and meiosis II 2. Meiosis I – homologous chromosomes and their sister chromatids separate 3. Meiosis II – Sister chromatids separate resulting in a haploid cell

50 Meiosis I

51 Meiosis I Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I
1. Tetrads attach to the spindle 2. Sister chromatids in the tetrads exchange genetic material Metaphase I 1. Tetrads move to the middle of the cell and line up Anaphase I 1. Homologous chromosomes separate and the sister chromatids move to opposite ends of the cell

52 Meiosis I Telophase I and Cytokinesis
The chromosomes arrive at the poles, the cell is considered to be haploid because there is only one set of chromosomes, even though each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids Cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm into two cells

53 Meiosis II

54 Meiosis II Prophase II Metaphse II Anaphase II
1. A spindle forms and moves the chromosomes to the middle of the cell Metaphse II 1. The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell Anaphase II 1. The sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles Telophase II and Cytokinesis 1. The chromosomes arrive at the poles and cytokinesis splits the cell one more time

55 Sperm and Egg Formation

56 9.6 Meiosis increases genetic variation among offspring

57 I. Assortment of Chromosomes
A. The way the chromosomes line up and separate during metaphase I is a matter of chance B. The assortment of chromosomes that end up in the resulting cells occur randomly C. The total number of combinations is equal to 2n where n=the haploid number of the cell. In humans n=23 so 223 = over 8 million!

58 Gene Recombination

59 II. Crossing Over A. Crossing Over is the exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes B. Crossing over adds to even more variation among offspring C. When a chromosome contains a new combination of genes from different parents it is called a genetic recombination

60 Crossing Over

61 III. Review: Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
A. Mitosis, which provides for growth, repair and asexual reproduction, produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell B. Meiosis, which takes place in the sex organs, yields haploid daughter cells with only one set of homologous chromosomes C. In both mitosis and meiosis the chromosomes only duplicate once, during interphase D. Mitosis and meiosis both make it possible for cells to inherit genetic information in the form of chromosome copies

62 Comparing Cell Division

63 Venn Diagram Mitosis Both Meiosis Body (autosomal) Cell division
Sex cells (gametes) 1 diploid cell  2 diploid cells Chromosomes duplicate once 1 diploid cell 4 haploid cells 46  46 chromosomes in humans Genetic information passed on  46 chromosomes in humans 1 cycle 2 cycles Tetrad, crossing over, independent assortment

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