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SPERMATOGENESIS. Spermatogenic cycle A1A1 2A 1 Mitosis 3A 2 A1A1 Mitosis 6B 1 Mitosis 12B 2 Mitosis 24 primary spermatocytes Mitosis 48 secondary spermatocytes.

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Presentation on theme: "SPERMATOGENESIS. Spermatogenic cycle A1A1 2A 1 Mitosis 3A 2 A1A1 Mitosis 6B 1 Mitosis 12B 2 Mitosis 24 primary spermatocytes Mitosis 48 secondary spermatocytes."— Presentation transcript:

1 SPERMATOGENESIS

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3 Spermatogenic cycle A1A1 2A 1 Mitosis 3A 2 A1A1 Mitosis 6B 1 Mitosis 12B 2 Mitosis 24 primary spermatocytes Mitosis 48 secondary spermatocytes Meiosis I 96 spermatids Meiosis II 96 mature spermatozoa Spermiogenesis = Spermateleosis = Spermatozoan metamorphosis First meiotic division lasts several weeks in humans Second meiotic division takes about 8 hours in humans The following is an example of how the number of spermatozoa is increased by repetitive mitotic divisions of spermatogonial cells followed by the two meiotic divisions. There are actually more than 4 types of spermatogonia, so the actual number of mature spermatozoa originating from the initial division of a type A 1 spermatogonium is actually greater than 96. Reductional division Equational division An entire spermatogenic cycle in humans takes about 64 days. The maturing spermatids remain attached by cytoplasmic bridges as they mature => syncytium

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5 Let’s think about meiosis: 1.Where did the chromosomes come from? 2.Why are there pairs of chromosomes? 3.How must the chromosomes segregate if you’re going to have sexual reproduction? What do you have to end up with in he gametes? 4.How would you accomplish this in two divisions?

6 IX Replicated Chromosome Dyad - Two Chromatids Replication Single Chromosome Monad II Homologous Pair MP CHROMOSOME TERMINOLOGY M X P X Replication Replicated Homologous Pair Synapsis X M X P Homologous Gene Loci Replicated Homologous Gene Loci Tetrad = Two Synapsed replicated Homologues

7 Meiosis Genetic Content (n) and Chromosome Number (c) Diploid genetic content - 2n - the 2 represents the fact that each gene locus can contain a maximum of 2 different gene alleles (e.g., one dominant and one recessive). “n” is the total number of homologous gene loci in the genome (a very big number). Diploid chromosome number - 2c - the 2 represents the fact that there are 2 chromosomes in each homologous pair. “c” is the total number of homologous pairs of chromosomes. P P M M PPMM Genetic content vs Chromosome number

8 Turn off pic-in-pic

9 Leptotene Chromosomes start to condense, dyads (replicated chromosomes) of homologous pairs first become visible as linear strings of DNA Zygotene Chromosomes condense further. Dyads of homologous pairs of chromosomes pair- up and their chromatids start to undergo synapsis. Pachytene Synapsis is completed with synapsed chromosomes forming tetrads. Cross-over takes place. Synapsed chromosomes thicken up (pachy - thick). Diplotene Chromosomes condense further, Desynapsis begins. Chromatids of homologous pairs of chromosomes remain connected at chiasmata where cross-over may have occurred. Diakinesis Chromosomes condense even further. Separating tetrads form strange shapes like crosses, fish, infinity signs as chiasmata move toward the ends of the paired chromatids of the homologous chromosomes (called terminalization). Eventually desynapsis is completed and the homologues separate from one and other completely and metaphase begins. First meiotic prophase:

10 Spermatogenesis in an Invertebrate - grasshopper

11 Figure on Page 89 of your text Spermatogenesis in Vertebrates

12 Figure of rat testis in digital lab manual

13 Spermatogenesis in Vertebrates Figure of human testis in digital lab manual

14 Spermiogenesis 1.Nucleus condenses (chromosomes condense and nuclear sap is removed) 2.Flagellum develops 3.Spermatocyte elongates 4.Acrosome formed from golgi body 5.Mitochondria aggregate around base of forming flagellum 6.Mitochondria fuse to form supermitochondrion (in humans) 7.Most of cytoplasm is shed and phagocytosed by sertoli cell (tubulobulbar processes)

15 1.Nucleus condenses (chromosomes condense and nuclear sap is removed) 2.Flagellum develops 3.Spermatocyte elongates 4.Acrosome formed from golgi body 5.Mitochondria aggregate around base of forming flagellum 6.Mitochondria fuse to form supermitochondrion (in humans) 7.Most of cytoplasm is shed and phagocytosed by sertoli cell (tubulobulbar processes)

16 Sertoli cell function 1.Remove excess cytoplasm from developing spermatid - tubulobulbar processes 2.Move spermatids toward the lumen of the seminiferous tubules - ectoplasmic specializations 3.Nurture and mediate maturation of spermatids 4.Segregate groups of developing gametes 5.Secrete fluid to transport sperm in reproductive tract 6.Secrete hormones and other factors a.Embryonic - anti-mullarian hormone b.Adult (1)inhibin (inhibits FSH production) (2)estrogen - may act to inhibit GnRH production by basal hypothalamus (3)Other factor (not a hormone) - androgen binding protein (helps transport androgens from interstitial fluid into seminiferous tubule - promotes spermatogenesis)


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