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From Novice to Knowing: A Primer on PCOS Kay M. Czaplewski, BSN, RN, BC, CDE, NHA Press to begin.

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Presentation on theme: "From Novice to Knowing: A Primer on PCOS Kay M. Czaplewski, BSN, RN, BC, CDE, NHA Press to begin."— Presentation transcript:

1 From Novice to Knowing: A Primer on PCOS Kay M. Czaplewski, BSN, RN, BC, CDE, NHA Press to begin

2 What is PCOS? PCOS (polycystic ovary disease) is a condition most often characterized by irregular or absent periods; abnormal hair growth; obesity and insulin resistance. It affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age, without regard to ethnicity (Legro, 2007) PCOS can lead to long term complications like diabetes, endometrial cancer, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease, if left untreated (MayoClinic, 2007; Hill, 2003) NEXT SLIDE

3 Why do we Care? next, please Nurses need to understand the basic physiology and treatment modalities of PCOS in order provide education, guidance, and support. Patients chief concerns with PCOS may change over time, and many will seek advice from different health care providers, including nurses. Nurses need to understand how PCOS is managed and the potential health risks associated with this common condition.

4 This tutorial will focus on four aspects of PCOS (click on an area of interest) Menstrual Dysfunction Anovulation/Infertility Hyperandrogen Insulin Resistance (There’s no place like ) HOME PAGE (click here for a refresher on normal menstrual function) Click here for pathophysiology of PCOS Or press next

5 How do we know what is abnormal until we know normal? TAKE ME ON A QUICK REVIEW NO TIME FOR REVIEW, JUST TELL ME ABOUT PCOS AND MENSTRUAL DYSFUNCTION Menstruation 101 Back to home page next

6 Normal Menstrual Cycle Four Main Phases Phase 1: Menses Phase 2: Follicular Phase Phase 3: Ovulation Phase 4: Luteal Phase Click on the daisies to learn more! home (Hole, 1989)

7 Phase 1 Day 1-5 Shedding of endometrium Average blood shed ml Plasmin enzyme released by endometrium inhibits clotting Take me to phase 2! (Hole, 1989) home

8 Phase 2: follicular Hypothalamus pituitary Follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) Luetinizing Hormone (LH) Follicles mature Releases estrogen Causes lining of uterus to thicken Hypothalamus releases luteinizing hormone releasing factor (LHRF) which causes increased LH Triggers most mature follicle to burst and release egg OVULATION (Hole, 1989) Phase 3, please home

9 Phase 3: Ovulation Blood supply to ovary increases Ligaments contract pulling ovary closer to fallopian tube Surge of LH weakens ovary wall Egg released Cervix develops clear stringy mucous Facilitates movement of sperm toward egg Unfertilized egg dissolves in uterus Take me to phase 4! (Hole, 1989) Take me home

10 Phase 4: Luteal After ovulation, residual follicles form corpus luteum, a solid body that produces progesterone and estrogen for about 2 weeks. Progesterone make uterine lining receptive to implantation. In absence of pregnancy, progesterone levels fall, this leads to menstrual shedding. Next slide (Hole, 1989) home

11 For a summary of menstruation in graph form, Please press me! Otherwise, proceed With test Kay,RN

12 Phase 1 question Average blood shed during menstruation is 300ml. A.TrueTrue B.FalseFalse back to menstrual cycle back home

13 That’s Correct! The average blood loss is ml Take me to question 2 (Wikipedia, 2007) Back to test home

14 Oops! Try again Blood shed in that amount may be detrimental! Let me try again!

15 Multiple choice Press on the correct answer In the follicular phase, the endometrium: A. Thickens B. Thins C. Sheds C. Dissolves home Phase 2 question Take me to menstrual cycle

16 Correct! Increasing levels of estrogen would produce thickening of endometrium in preparation of a potential fertilized egg. (Hole, 1989) Back to test Phase 3 question

17 no… A dissolving endometrium That’s just silly Ha…ha…ha… Return to test Next question

18 no… thinning would be Menstruation!!! (Hole, 1989) Back to test

19 No… shedding Would be menstruation (Hole, 1989) Back to test

20 Phase 3 Question During Ovulation Egg is released No egg released home Menstrual cycle

21 correct Under the influence of FSH secreted by the anterior pituitary, the follicle matures, a rush of LH cases the mature follicle to rupture. This is called ovulation (Tabers, 2006). Back to test Next question home

22 Not quite… Remember, during ovulation, the mature egg is released. Back to test question home

23 Phase 4 Question After ovulation, what do the follicles form? 1.Corpus luteum 2. Corpus Christi

24 Yes… After ovulation residual follicles form corpus luteum, a solid body that produces progesterone and estrogen for about 2 weeks. Progesterone makes the uterine lining receptive to implantation. In absence of pregnancy progesterone levels fall, this leads to menstrual shedding (Hole, 1989). Next home

25 No Ya…all… Back to test

26 Great job on getting through the normal menstrual cycle, Next slide home now let’s talk about PCOS…

27 Pathophysiology of PCOS Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by inappropriate gonadotropin secretion, Androgen excess and often hyperinsulinemia, all of which contribute to anovulation Pituitary secretion of LH increases Hyperinsulinemia stimulates ovarian and adrenal androgen synthesis Treatments are directed at Restoring gonadotropin secretion (clomiphene) Decreasing androgen levels (follicle-stimulating hormone Or ablative surgery) Decreasing insulin levels (metformin, insulin sensitizers, weight loss, exercise (Adapted from Legro,R.S. JAMA 2007 used with permission) Disordered GnRH Release Next slide Impaired estrogen feedback leads to increased LH and decreased FSH home Increased androgen and Insulin levels decrease levels of circulating binding proteins that limit androgen bioactivity Increased LH release Increased Ovarian Androgen biosynthesis

28 Menstrual Dysfunction Problem: Endometrium is in an unopposed estrogen state resulting in anovulation. This results in suppression of FSH and increase of LH leading to endometrium proliferation. (Hill, 2003) next home Press here for a refresher on normal menstrual function

29 Bonus question… What is the problem with endometrial Proliferation? answer home Previous

30 Endometrial Cancer For women with PCOS, chronic unopposed estrogen is a risk factor for endometrial carcinoma. Four menses per year are recommended to to help control this risk. Sheehan, 2004 continue home

31 Treatment of Menstrual Dysfunction Oral contraceptives and progesterone withdrawal Lifestyle modification/weight loss Metformin (Barbieri & Ehrmann, 2007) continue home

32 Oral contraceptives (OCs) affect the ovary by maintaining a constant level of estrogen and progesterone. This prevents fluctuation of estrogen and progesterone. Thus OCs manage oligomenorrhea and reduce the risk of endometrial cancer (Kelly, 2003). Provera (progesterone withdrawal) results in menses. Four menses per year are recommended to decrease risk of development of uterine cancer from endometrial proliferation. (Sheehan, 2004, Hill, 2003) Oral Contraceptives and Progesterone Withdrawal Next page home

33 Lifestyle Modification and Weight Loss Weight loss can lead to resumption of ovulation within weeks. Improving insulin resistance through Diet and exercise can result in improvement In menstrual function (Stankiewicz & Norman, 2006). weight hyperinsulinemiahyperandrogenmenstruation home Test Time!

34 Test Time The purpose of a progesterone withdrawal is to cause A. No Menses B. Menses

35 C-o-r-r-e-c-t Progesterone levels are elevated during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. As they fall, menstrual shedding occurs. For a woman with PCOS, it is necessary to induce menstrual shedding for the prevention of cervical cancer. This done with progesterone withdrawal course, taken about four times per year. (Barbieri & Ehrmann, 2007) next home Back to test

36 Ooops!…try again (hint…it’s just the opposite!) Back to question Back to menstrual dysfunction Back to home

37 Anovulation and Infertility Normally in the follicular phase, follicles in the ovary begin developing under the influence of a complex interplay of hormones, and after several days, the dominant follicle releases an egg in an event known as ovulation. (Hole, 1989). In PCOS, LH remains elevated, ovulation cannot occur (Sheehan, 2004). home next

38 In most patients, Clomiphene and extended release metformin are used alone or together to induce ovulation. (Legro, Barnhardt, Schlaff, Carr, Diabmond, et al, 2007) Treatment of Anovulation and Infertility Next page

39 Weight Loss reduces hyperinsulinemia And subsequently, hyperandrogenism (Hill, 2003). weighthyperinsulinemiahyperandrogen home Lifestyle Changes next

40 Treatment of Anovulation and Infertility …decreases hepatic glucose production thus reducing the need for insulin secretion. This helps suppress androgen production and improves ovulation Metformin… TEST TIME! home back (Legro, Barnhardt, Schlaff, Carr, Diamond, et al, 2007) …decreases intestinal absorption of glucose and improves insulin resistance AND

41 Anovulation and Infertility For practical purposes, anovulation and infertility are the same thing. True False Next slide home

42 For practical purposes, true When the egg has matured, it secretes enough estradiol to trigger the release of LH. The surge of LH matures the egg and weakens the wall of the follicle in the ovary. This process leads to ovulation. (Wikipedia, 2007) A woman must ovulate to be fertile. (Hole, 1989) Back to test home Next slide

43 (Wikipedia, 2007) Normal Menstrual Cycle Press for test

44 Insulin Resistance (IR) Fasting glucose Impaired 2 hour glucose tolerance test Fasting insulin ratio <4.5 (Stankiewicz & Norman, 2006) (Acanthosis nigricans, a dark, velvety pigmentation seen on back of neck, axilla, or skin folds is symptom of insulin resistance (Franz, 2003) home Next slide (IR) is a condition in which the cells of the body become resistant to the effects of insulin. The normal response to a given amount of insulin is reduced. As a result, higher levels of insulin are needed in order for insulin to have the desired effect (Franz, 2003; Stankiewicz & Norman, 2006).

45 Treatment of Insulin Resistance METFORMIN decreases hepatic glucose production thus reducing the need for insulin secretion. This helps suppress androgen production and improves ovulation. Metformin also decreases intestinal absorption of glucose and improves insulin resistance (Legro, Barnhardt, Schlaff, Carr, Diamond, et al, 2007). Next slide

46 Treatment of Insulin Resistance Metformin also lowers fatty acid concentrations, thus reducing gluconeogenesis (The formation of glucose, especially by the liver, from non- carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and the glycerol portion of fats) (Barbieir & Ehrmann, 2007; Franz, 2003) Test time!

47 Test-time What is glyconeogenesis? The first book of the bible? The formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources? The formation of free fatty acids? Previous slide Home

48 Yes, genesis is the first book in the bible No, genesis is not gluconeogenesis Back to test

49 You are a rock star!! As you know, gluconeogenesis is the formation of glucose, especially by the liver, from non- carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and the glycerol portions of fats (Barbieri & Ehrmann, 2007) Back to test Back home next

50 Free fatty acids are an important source of fuel for many tissues since they can yield relatively large quantities of energy. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose (Franz, 2003). Metformin inhibits this process (Barbieir & Ehrmann, 2007). Close, but no cigar! Back to test

51 Hyperandrogen next home Hirsutism is one bothersome aspect of PCOS, often seen as Distribution of hair on the face, chest, abdomen, back, thumbs Or toes. It is also seen as male-pattern balding or thinning hair. The goals of medication therapy are to lower androgen levels, increase sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels to allow less circulating testosterone, and if the patient wants, hair removal. (Hill, 2003)

52 How does circulating androgens contribute to hirsutism? Q. A. The anagen (growth) phase of the hair cycle is prolonged in hyperandrogenic states, resulting in increased male pattern hair distribution (Hill, 2003) next

53 Treatment of Hirsutism Spironolactone is often used for its aldosterone antagonist side effect (Barbieri & Ehrmann, 2007) Mechanical Hair Removal  shaving  plucking  electrolysis  waxing  bleaching (Hill, 2003) Vaniqua (inhibits an enzyme for normal hair growth) (Barbieri & Ehrmann, 2007) Test time

54 In PCOS, spironolactone is used for it’s effect as (press on the correct answer) 1. Aldosterone antagonist 2. Aldosterone protagonist Next slide, please

55 Spironolactone inhibits the effect of aldosterone by competing for intracellular aldosterone receptors. Spironolactone has anti-androgen activity by binding to the androgen receptor and thus preventing it to interact with dihydrotestosterone. This blocks the action of testosterone and reduces hirsutism (Sheehan, 2004; Hill, 2003, Wikipedia, 2007) Hey learner, it’s your birthday, hey, learner, it’s your birthday… you are correct! next

56 Not quite… Back to test We want to decrease androgen secretion and action

57 Summary PCOS is a chronic condition, most often characterized by irregular or absent periods; abnormal hair growth; obesity and insulin resistance. It affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age (Legro, 2007). PCOS can lead to long term complications like diabetes, endometrial cancer, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease, if left untreated (MayoClinic, 2007; Hill, 2003). Next slide

58 Summary Treatment of PCOS is focused on areas that cause the patient the most distress, however, as nurses, we need to be familiar with the complexity of PCOS and potential health risks associated with this common condition, to better help our patients. next home

59 I would like to thank Kimberly Woyach, MSN, APNP, CDE for inspiring me with her knowledge and passion of PCOS references home Start tutorial over

60 Barbieri, R. L., Erhmann, D. A. (2007) Patient information: Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Retrieved February 4, 2007 from UpToDate, licensed by the Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. Franz, M. J. (Ed.). (2003). A core curriculum for diabetes educators, fifth edition: Diabetes in the life cycle.American Association of Diabetes Educators. Chicago: American Association of Diabetes Educators. Hill, K. M. (2003). Update: The pathogenesis and treatment of PCOS. The nurse practitioner. 28 (7): 8-23 Hole, J. W. (1989). Essentials of human anatomy and physiology (3rd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Legro, R.S. (2007) A 27-year-old woman with a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. JAMA. 297 (5): Legro, R. S., Barnhardt, H. X., Schlaff, W. D., Carr, B. R., Diabmond, M. P., Carson, et al (2007) Clomiphene, metformin, or both for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome. The new england journal of medicine. 346 (6): MayoClinic (nd) Women's health: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Retrieved February 18, 2007 from References next

61 Stankiewicz, M., Norman, R. (2006) Diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary disease: A practical guide. Drugs (7): Sheehan, M.T.(2004). Polycystic ovary syndrome: Diagnosis and management. Clinical medicine & research. 2 (1): Taber’s cyclopedic medical dictionary (20th ed) (2005). Philadelphia. F. A. Davis company. Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. (2006) FL: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved February 14, 2007 from http.www.wikipedia.org Womenshealth.gov (2007) Polycystic ovarian syndrome. retrieved February 2, 2007 from References Start tutorial again


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