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What is Celiac Disease? Celiac disease is an auto-immune disorder in which the villi in the gastrointestinal tract receives damage from the ingestion of.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Celiac Disease? Celiac disease is an auto-immune disorder in which the villi in the gastrointestinal tract receives damage from the ingestion of."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Celiac Disease? Celiac disease is an auto-immune disorder in which the villi in the gastrointestinal tract receives damage from the ingestion of gluten- containing foods. Gluten is primarily found in wheat, barley, and rye. When gluten is ingested, the villi of the small intestine inflame to protect the body from the alleged invader. When this reoccurs throughout time, the villi will eventually flatten and no longer absorb the vital nutrients the body needs (Green et al., 2006). Problem? Lack of Nutrients: Many people with celiac disease or a gluten intolerance use the same products continuously in their diet as a new substitution for gluten. The commonly used grains are corn, potato, and rice. Although they are gluten free, all are lacking a high content of the vital nutrients that the body needs. The introduction of a variety of grains in the diet may provide the body with essential nutrients and additional flavors to the individual. Alternative Grains Amaranth- relative of spinach family Brown rice- from rice kernels where only the hull is removed Buckwheat- relative of rhubarb family Cassava- tropical plant with high starch root Chickpea- seed of leguminous plant and member of the pea family Corn- member of cereal plant, six different types commonly seen are flint, flour, dent, sweet, pod, and pop corns Millet- drought tolerant rice grass Oats- member of grain family Quinoa- member of chenopodiacum herb family, most ancient used grain Sorghum- cereal grain used mostly as a flour or syrup, third most common food yield worldwide. Soy- subtropical legume species Tapioca- derived from cassava root it is used to thicken gluten free products, i.e. sauces and breads Teff- member of millet family, primary grain in Ethiopian bread Wild rice- seed from the top of wild aquatic grass. Found in United States and Canada. References Health Benefits Many celiac patients are reportedly deficient in adequate of calcium, iron, folate, and the fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E, and K). The following are considered superhero’s in the gluten free grains. Amaranth- high in protein, iron, fiber, zinc, calcium, magnesium, B vitamins, and linolenic acid. Buckwheat- contains 8 essential amino acids, fiber, iron, magnesium, vitamin B 6, zinc, niacin, and thiamin. Millet- good source of fiber and protein. Quinoa- has the highest source of high-quality protein when compared to any other grain. Also very high in iron, B vitamins, magnesium, and calcium. Teff- high content of protein, iron, calcium, and B vitamins. Contains 2-3X more iron than barley or wheat. Wild rice (brown, black, or red)- high in protein, fiber, zinc and potassium. Conclusion At this time the only way to properly treat celiac disease is through a gluten-free diet. The diet is very challenging, but with these vast choices in grains and seeds, it should be easier for an individual to adapt too. The variety of grains should also help the individual succeed in getting adequate nutrients in the diet through food. Individuals no longer have to worry if a food product contains wheat due to the enactment of the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (Niewinski, 2008). This law requires the food label to state if the product contains any of the eight major food groups that consists for the greater part of food allergies (Green et al, 2006). Note that any product containing wheat, barley or rye is unsafe to eat. Gluten Free: Unique Grains & Seeds Rebecca Scheeler Concordia College, Moorhead Fig. 1. Antifungal activity of the water-soluble extract of amaranth seeds (B). Sterile paper disks without water-soluble extract were used as the control (A) (Rizzello et al., 2009). Grain or product (1 Cup) Total Fat (g) Protein (g) Dietary Fiber (g) Iron mg (DV %) Calcium mg (DV%) Folate mcg (DV%) Amaranth raw (82%) 307 (31%) 158 (40%) Barley (hulled) (37%) 60.7 (6%) 35.0 (9%) Brown Rice Med grain, raw (19%) 62.7 (6%) 38 (9%) Buckwheat raw (21%) 30.6 (3%) 51.0 (13%) Bulgur raw (19%) 49.0 (5%) 37.8 (9%) Cassava raw (3%) 33.0 (3%) 55.6 (14%) Chickpea Flour (25%) 41.4 (4%) 402 (101%) Corn yellow, raw (4%) 3.1 (0%) 70.8 (18%) Couscous raw (10%) 41.5 (4%) 34.6 (9%) Millet raw (33%) 16 (2%) 170 (43%) Oats bran, raw (28%) 54.5 (5%) 48.9 (12%) Quinoa raw (43%) 79.9 (8%) 313 (78%) Rye Raw (25%) 55.8 (6%) 101 (25%) Sorghum raw (47%) 53.8 (5%) - Soy flour, raw (30%) 173 (17%) 290 (72%) Tapioca pearl, dry (13%) 30.4 (3%) 6.1 (2%) Teff raw (82%) 347 (35%) - Triticale raw (27%) 71.0 (7%) 140 (35%) Wheat Flour (26%) 40.8 (4%) 52.8 (13%) Table 1. Comparison of the nutritional content from selected flours and grains. Gluten-free products are shown in bold (Nutrition facts, 2008). Common Uses of Various Alternative Grains Amaranth- well suited for making bread or porridge type dishes. Obtains a woodsy flavor. Also has unique antifungal properties that is suitable in extending the shelf life of breads. Buckwheat- consists of a nut flavor. Ideal for use in addition of side dishes such as soups, salads, casseroles, stews, and stuffing's. Often used as a barley replacement. Millet- with no distinct flavor it is ideal for flour that is used in baking. Also commonly seen as a hot cereal. Quinoa- with a crunchy yet soft texture, quinoa is suitable for many vegetable dishes. It works well with spices and nuts. Often used as a replacement for couscous. Teff- containing a naturally occurring yeast it is great for cereals or puddings. Often used as a thickening agent in sauces. Wild rice- with a crunchy and nutty flavor it works great in the addition of white or brown rice to add more nutrients to the dish. It is most commonly seen in soups. Safety: Oats? Many factories that process oats are also large processors of wheat containing products, so it is possible for cross contamination to occur. Testing done by the FDA have shown trace amounts of gluten in oat products. To avoid cross contamination altogether, buy oats that have the FDA regulated gluten-free label (Niewinski, 2008). Green, P.H., & Jones, R. (2006). Celiac Disease: A hidden Epidemic. London: Collins. Korn, D. (2002). Wheat-Free, Worry-Free: The Art of Happy, Healthy Gluten-Free Living. Carlsbad: Hay House. Mariotti, M., Lucisano, M., Pagani, A., & Ng, P. K. (2009). The role of corn starch, amaranth flour, pea isolate, and Psyllium flour on t he rheological properties and the ultrastructure of gluten-free doughs. Food Research International, 42, Retrieved November 25,2009, from the Elsevier database. Niewinski, M. (2008). Advances in Celiac Disease and Gluten-Free Diet. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108, “Nutrition facts.” Nutrition facts, calories in food, labels, nutrition information and analysis- NutritionData.com. N.p., 20 Aug Web. 6 Dec


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