# Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org RTI: We’re in Dragon Country Now! Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org.

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Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org RTI: We’re in Dragon Country Now! Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 2 Hic sunt dracones. [Latin for “Here be dragons…”] Phrase appearing on the Lenox Globe circa 1503, denoting unknown dangers on the unexplored east coast of Asia. This term now is used to describe any instance in which decision-making or action is difficult because the situation is so complex or because so many variables are unknown. Source: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Here_be_dragons#Dragons_on_maps

Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 3 Two Ways to Solve Problems: Algorithm vs. Heuristic Algorithm. An explicit step-by-step procedure for producing a solution to a given problem. Example: Multiplying 6 x 2 Heuristic. A rule of thumb or approach which may help in solving a problem, but is not guaranteed to find a solution. Heuristics are exploratory in nature. Example: Using a map to find an appropriate route to a location.

Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 4 As Knowledge Base Grows, Heuristic Approaches (Exploratory, Open-Ended Guidelines to Solving a Problem) Can Sometimes Turn into Algorithms (Fixed Rules for Solving a Problem ) Example: Recipes Through History DARYOLS: ORIGINAL14th CENTURY ENGLISH RECIPE (HEURISTIC): Take cream of cow milk, or of almonds; do there-to eggs with sugar, saffron and salt. Mix it fair. Do it in a pie shell of 2 inch deep; bake it well and serve it forth. MODERN DARYOLS RECIPE (ALGORITHM): INGREDIENTS 2 (9 inch) unbaked pie crusts 1/2 cup blanched almonds 1 1/4 cups cold water 1 cup half-and-half cream 1 pinch saffron powder 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon 5 eggs 3/4 cup white sugar 1 teaspoon rose water DIRECTIONS Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Press pie crusts into the bottom and up the sides of two 9 inch pie pans. Prick with a fork all over to keep them from bubbling up. Bake pie crusts for about 10 minutes in the preheated oven, until set but not browned. Set aside to cool. Make an almond milk by placing almonds in the container of a food processor. Process until finely ground, then add water, and pulse just to blend. Let the mixture sit for 10 minutes, then strain through a cheesecloth. Measure out 1 cup of the almond milk, and mix with half and half. Stir in the saffron and cinnamon, and set aside. Place the eggs and sugar in a saucepan, and mix until well blended. Place the pan over low heat, and gradually stir in the almond milk mixture and cinnamon. Cook over low heat, stirring constantly until the mixture begins to thicken. When the mixture is thick enough to evenly coat the back of a metal spoon, stir in rose water and remove from heat. Pour into the cooled pie shells…. Bake for 40 minutes in the preheated oven, or until the center is set, but the top is not browned. Cool to room temperature, then refrigerate until serving.

Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 5 RTI is a Work in Progress: Some I\Areas Can Be Managed Like an Algorithm While Others Require a Heuristic Approch Reading Fluency. Can be approached as a fixed algorithm. –DIBELS allows universal screening and progress-monitoring –DIBELS benchmarks give indication of student risk status –Classroom-friendly research-based fluency building interventions have been validated Study Skills. A complex set of skills whose problem-solving approach resembles a heuristic. –Student’s basic set of study skills must be analyzed –The intervention selected will be highly dependent on the hypothesized reason(s) for the student’s study difficulties –The quality of the research on study-skills interventions varies and is still in development

Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 6 What Are 5 ‘dragon regions’ of RTI? Scarcity of research demonstrating the effectiveness of RTI vs. traditional methods of special identification (Fuchs, Mock, Morgan, & Young, 2003) Indeterminate decision rules for length of time an intervention should be implemented, number of intervention trials required, etc. (Barnett, Daly, Jones, & Lentz, 2004; Gresham 2001) Gaps in the intervention literature—limited information about effective interventions for certain target concerns (e.g., reading comprehension) and for higher age-groups (e.g., high school) (Gresham 2001; Gresham, 1998; Kratochwill & Shernoff, 2003; Vaughn & Fuchs, 2003) Questions of how scalable and cost-effective the RTI model is (Gresham 2001; Gresham, 1998; Kratochwill & Shernoff, 2003; Vaughn & Fuchs, 2003) Lack of clarity regarding how RTI fits in to the Special Education referral process (34 C.F.R. 300 & 301, 2006)

Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 7 References 34 C.F.R. 300 & 301 (2006). Assistance to States for the Education of Children With Disabilities and Preschool Grants for Children With Disabilities. Barnett, D. W., Daly, E. J., Jones, K. M., & Lentz, F.E. (2004). Response to intervention: Empirically based special service decisions from single-case designs of increasing and decreasing intensity. Journal of Special Education, 38, 66-79. Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness-to- Intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(3), 157-171. Gresham, F. M. (2001). Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities. Paper presented at the Learning Disabilities Summit, Washington DC. Gresham, F. M. (1989). Assessment of treatment integrity in school consultation and prereferral intervention. School Psychology Review, 18, 37–50

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