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Today’s Goals : 1) Using only bone, be able to describe how you could identify: a)Biological sex, b) Age, c) Occupational Stress and, d) Pathologies. 2)

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Presentation on theme: "Today’s Goals : 1) Using only bone, be able to describe how you could identify: a)Biological sex, b) Age, c) Occupational Stress and, d) Pathologies. 2)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Today’s Goals : 1) Using only bone, be able to describe how you could identify: a)Biological sex, b) Age, c) Occupational Stress and, d) Pathologies. 2) Compare & contrast indigenous population well-being in Spanish Florida and Lamanai (Belize) cases

2 What sorts of things can a skeleton tell you? And why would a social scientist care?

3 Bioarchaeology Today= Population Perspective The use of a range of biological techniques on archaeological materials to learn more about similarities and differences in the past. Forensic Anthropology Similar definition, but in a legal setting vs. Biological Sex Age Pathologies Occupation Diet

4 Macchu Picchu (Peru) and the “ Virgins of the Sun ”

5 Determining Biological Sex from skeletons Different than Gender Variation Issues Basic Etiology (i.e. hormones) Natural Variation between males/females in population Age differences (infants & children nearly impossible) Environmental influences (general health, nutrition, occupation) Masculinity, femininity, diff. ambiguous or in-between status Socially constructed= not born with it (more next class) Issues of sexuality, role, & occupation

6 Determining Biological Sex from skeletons “ Sexual Dimorphism ” Using the Skull Using the Pelvis (usually best) Chin, mastoid process, zygomatic arch, teeth Sciatic notch, subpubic angle, sacrum

7 Male Female CHIN MASTOID PROCESS ZYGOMATIC ARCH TEETH (in adults)

8 FemaleMale Sciatic Notch Subpubic Angle Sacrum

9 In-Class Exercise More femaleMore male

10 Determining Biological Age from skeletons Skull Sutures Sternal ends of ribs (esp. 4 th rib down) Pubic Symphisis Bone fusions (clavicle & other bones too) Fetal → Infant (0-3 years) → Child (3-12 yrs) Adolescent (12-20) → Young Adult (20-35) Adult (35-55) → Old Adult (55+) Tooth Eruption

11 Skull (cranial) Sutures

12 Tooth Eruption

13 Epiphyseal Fusion

14 Sternal End of Rib Advantageous because less obviously related to occupational stress Child Elderly Adult Most of you Mid-30s

15 Pubic Symphsis In-Class Exercise

16 Occupational Stress Modifications in joints related to work Arthritis in joints and vertebrae Dental wear (especially in front teeth) Muscle attachments (longbones)

17 Occupational Stress Bone adapts to physical stress like lifting, pushing, pulling etc. Generally, more pressure & stress makes longbones thicken so they don ’ t bend or break Metric criteria (things you can measure) Bone as an organ

18 Occupational Stress Non-Metric criteria (things you can only note presence or absence of) Like thickened muscle attachments

19 Figure 1. Femoral non-metric traits, including: a) Charles’ facet [EBND 1.272]; b) Martin’s facet [EBND 3.117]; c) osteochondritic imprint [EBND 5.160]; d) tibial imprint [EBND 6.132]. a a b b c c d d Relation of the femur, tibia, and patella during kneeling, a more sustained form of hyperflexion. Adapted from Trinkaus (1975). Kneeling Facets Occupational Stress More Non-Metric features bioarchaeologists look out for

20 Occupational Stress More Non-Metric features bioarchaeologists look out for Arthritis (usually occupation + age) Grooves in teeth

21 Pathologies In bioarch, the physical consequences of different diseases or problems (usually chronic ones). Osteological Paradox Evidence for disease = population health? Nutritional stress events during childhood Enamel Hypoplasia

22 Pathologies Harris Lines Also nutritional stress events during childhood

23 Pathologies Severe Abscess Cavity Dental Caries & Abscesses (Diet related) Caries

24 Pathologies Severe iron deficiencies (anemia) = Porotic hyperostoses (Diet or disease-related) Cribra Orbitalia (usually in children) Classic Porotic Hyperostosis Healed over or not?

25 Other Pathologies Syphilis Tuberculosis (collapse & fusion, usually thoracic)

26 Sex Age Occupation Pathologies Pointy chin= Sciatic Notch= Small mastoid= Wide Pubic Angle= Teeth= over 21 Sutures= younger than 40 Clavicle fusion= Interpretation= Rib end= Pubic symphisis= late 20s Interpretation= late 20s, early 30s Grooved teeth Neck arthritis Enamel hypoplasia Harris lines

27 Diet (more next class) You are what you eat

28 Occupied continuously from 700 B.C. to 1641 A.D. Probably the longest uninterrupted sequence in the Maya area On river trade route. Trading center that influenced parts of Belize, Mexico, & Guatemala Indirect contract with Spanish, not immediately resettled into encomiendas or missions

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