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Presentation on theme: "HUMAN REPRODUCTION BIOLOGY 269"— Presentation transcript:


2 Female Reproductive System
Produce hormones (estrogen and progesterone) for secondary sexual characteristics. Produce one large oocyte at regular intervals and release it in such a way that it enters the oviduct (“Fallopian tube”,“uterine tube”). Receive semen from the male and transport it into the oviduct. Produce hormones (estrogen and progesterone) which prepare the uterus for pregnancy each cycle by thickening its inner lining; Getting rid of this thickened lining each cycle if pregnancy does not occur. Protect and nourish the embryo and fetus during pregnancy, then expel it through the vagina Produce milk to nourish the newborn


4 Ovary: Located within pelvis, 2 to 5 cm (1 to 2 inches) lateral to the uterus Approximately 3cm x 2cm x 1cm Central region, or “medulla”, consists of connective tissue with many blood vessels. Outer region, or “ ”, has all of the oocytes. One or two of these oocytes may be developing before ovulation; undeveloped ones are stored here. Also contains the remnant from the previous cycle’s ovulation, called a “ “ , which secretes progesterone to keep uterus ready for implantation of the embryo

5 Maturation of an oocyte is called oogenesis, which leads to ovulation
During oogenesis, the oocyte is surrounded by follicular cells granulosa cells in one or more layers, forming a

6 The developing oocyte and its follicle: Four stages before ovulation
: All formed before birth - hundreds in each ovary Have not yet begun development – remain dormant until puberty Consists of primary oocyte surrounded by a single layer of flat follicular cells

7 The developing oocyte and its follicle: Four stages before ovulation
: Develop only after puberty; 3 to 4 enter this stage each cycle No change in primary oocyte Follicle has begun development – cells are larger

8 The developing oocyte and its follicle: Four stages before ovulation
: 1 or 2 primary follicles progress to this stage each cycle Primary oocyte larger, finishes first division of meiosis to become a secondary oocyte, also forming a polar body. Follicle grows larger as follicular cells divide to form many layers; spaces begin to develop in center of follicle

9 The developing oocyte and its follicle: Four stages before ovulation
Most follicles which made it to “secondary” will reach this stage Follicle is very large; Many layers of cells surrounding fluid-filled center called antrum Secondary oocyte covered with thick, clear membrane called zona pellucida; pushed to one side in follicle and surrounded by mass of follicular cells called cumulus oophorus

10 Big Question: How is this process of oogenesis regulated?
Oogenesis, as well as ovulation and many other things, is regulated by the pituitary gland, which lies just below the brain

11 Oogenesis and growth of the follicle in the ovary are initiated and stimulated by from the pitutitary During this oogenesis under the stimulation of FSH, follicular cells surrounding the oocyte secrete the hormone , which stimulates the inner lining of the uterus to thicken and begin secreting mucus, getting ready for pregnancy This estrogen from the follicular cells also inhibits the pituitary gland from secreting any more FSH. Thus, no more follicles will be stimulated to develop until it stops.

12 Rupture of the follicle is ovulation.
The secondary oocyte, surrounded by the zona pellucida and cumulus oophorus, is released from the surface of the ovary, where it can be captured by the open end of the oviduct. The cumulus oophorus now called the corona radiata.

13 Ovulation is triggered when the pituitary gland secretes a different hormone, called .
Luteinizing hormone also causes the follicular cells of the now empty follicle to develop into a . This structure secretes the hormone

14 Before ovulation: FSH stimulates cells of follicle to secrete , which stimulates the lining of the uterus to develop. After ovulation: LH stimulates cells of the corpus luteum to secrete , which maintains the uterine lining in this “ready for pregnancy” condition If fertilization and pregnancy occur, the placenta of the embryo secretes a hormone called , which stimulates the corpus luteum to keep secreting progesterone, which in turn keeps the lining of the uterus thick and full of blood vessels. If fertilization and pregnancy do not occur, after a few days the corpus luteum deteriorates and stops producing progesterone. Without its stimulus, the uterus can not maintain its thick lining, so this falls off and is shed as menstruation.


16 When the oocyte is released from the surface of the ovary during ovulation, it is picked up by the oviduct, or Fallopian Tube, a hollow muscular tube which leads from near the uterus to the ovaries.

17 Oviduct: Lateral End: Wide opening, or , surrounds the surface of the ovary. The edge is surrounded by finger-like Middle Part: Wide Medial End: Narrow leads into uterus. Cavity of oviduct is continuous with cavity of uterus

18 By mechanisms not completely understood:
The oviduct moves the oocyte toward the uterus The oviduct moves sperm away from the uterus Fertilization occurs in ampulla of oviduct, forming the zygote, which goes through repeated mitotic cell divisions to eventually form the embryo. Oviduct moves this growing mass of pre-embryo cells toward uterus: takes 3 or 4 days. Secretions from oviduct are necessary to keep sperm, oocyte, and embryo alive.

19 Uterus: Anterior to rectum; Posterior & superior to bladder
Narrowed inferiorly to form cervix, which projects into vagina

20 Two layers of endometrium:
Uterus: Outer layer = : Thick layer of muscle Inner layer = : Lots of glands & blood vessels Two layers of endometrium: : Closer to myometrium; Remains after menstruation; Regrows functional layer : Closer to cavity; Thickens every cycle; Embryo implants here during pregnancy; Dies and falls off during menstruation Inferior end narrows to form , which projects down into vagina

21 Mass of Uterus: At end of pregnancy:
Immediately before menstruation: – 150 grams Immediately after end of menstruation: – 100 grams End of pregnancy: ,000 – 1,500 grams At end of pregnancy: Uterus extends from vagina inferiorly to bottom of sternum superiorly Lies anterior to all other abdominal organs except bladder

22 Vagina: Thin-walled, tubular Inferior to uterus; Anterior to rectum
Posterior to bladder & urethra Receives penis and semen during sexual intercourse Passage for delivery of fetus or menstrual flow

23 External Genitalia: The vagina opens between the
into a space called the Outside of those are the At the anterior junction of the outer labia is the Note that

24 The head, or glans, of the clitoris which is visible externally
is only a small part of this organ. Two shafts of erectile tissue extend backwards along the pelvic floor on either side of the urethra and vagina.

25 Lateral to uterus Oviduct Ovary Uterus Pubic Bone Bladder Rectum
Clitoris Labium minora Vagina Labium majora Urethra x


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