Presentation on theme: "What do these foods have in common? Peppery shrimp gumbo served at a restaurant Homemade chicken gravy Tomato soup ladled out into a bowl at school."— Presentation transcript:
What do these foods have in common? Peppery shrimp gumbo served at a restaurant Homemade chicken gravy Tomato soup ladled out into a bowl at school
Each one – stew, sauce, and a soup ► Starts from one basic formula: a liquid plus something to thicken it. ► Differences? From the amount of one ingredient to another. ► Your choice of liquid depends on the other ingredients.
Broth ► Also called stock, bouillon, or consommé ► Is a flavorful liquid ► Pumpkin soup may start with chicken broth, a tomato soup maybe a tomato juice, a chowder a fish broth. ► Making your own broth
What do I do? ►A►A►A►A broth is a worthy end for food scraps ►S►S►S►Simmers for several hours. ►A►A►A►Add water – replace what evaporates ►A►A►A►After it is done, the broth is strained and those ingredients discarded ►B►B►B►Bacteria – chill quickly ►T►T►T►This will cause fat to set. Use in four days or freeze.
But I don’t have time to make the broth! ► That’s okay there are some convenient forms. ► Canned, ready to use ► Reduced sodium ► Fat free ► Vegetarian
► Bouillon. ► Convenience broths may be flavored with animal fat and dehydrated meat, poultry, or vegetables. ► Salt. ► We have in class the paste type that is called a base.
Thickening ► One thickening method - Reduction ► This method concentrates the flavor ► Season after reducing ► Using a starchy or protein food. ► Flour is a thickening ► Cornstarch –Cornstarch has twice the thickening power of flour.
How do I do it? ► Do not add either of these directly to hot liquid ► Why – forms lumps ► Mix starch with cold water before adding it to the liquid ► One part starch to two parts liquid in a jar or small bowl
How much starch do I need? ►T►T►T►Thin1 T flour1 ½ t cornstarch ►M►M►M►Medium2 T flour1 T cornstarch ►T►T►T►Thick3 T flour1 ½ T cornstarch ►M►M►M►Medium thickness is enough to coat the back of the spoon. ►M►M►M►Mix the amount of starch with twice as much cold water.
► Next slowly pour and stir ► Simmer over medium heat until thickened, stirring constantly ► Flour – not simmer – raw flour taste. ► Prolonged cooking or over stirring - can become runny
Making a Roux ►M►M►M►Mixture of flour and fat. ►E►E►E►Equal amount of flour and fat ►U►U►U►Used to thicken liquids ►F►F►F►Fat can be butter, margarine or fat drippings from cooked foods ►R►R►R►Ratio 2:2:1
How to do it ► Measure fat – melt to liquefy ► Stir in flour – form smooth paste ► Cook and stir roux until bubbles about 2 min ► Can cook more but lessens thickening power. ► Can refrigerate or freeze uncooked roux
What is a soup - ►T►T►T►There are three basic types ►1►1►1►1st Clear soup – bouillon, consommé, broth ►2►2►2►2nd Cream Soup – has vegetables, seasonings, broth. Almost any vegetable can be used as a base.
► If you use a starchy food like potatoes, you don’t need to thicken it if you puree it. ► Bisque is a cream soup made from shellfish. ► 3 rd Hearty or Chunky Soup – have chunks of vegetables, meat, poultry, seafood, pasta ► Examples – minestrone, beef vegetable
Other Soups ► Fruit Soup – served hot or cold ► Fruits are pureed, flavored, thickened with cornstarch, gelatin, buttermilk, or yogurt. ► Cold Soup – Cold vegetable soups as well as fruit. Vichyssoise – pureed cooked leeks and potatoes in heavy cream garnish with chives. French ► Gazpacho –dry bread, soaked and then pureed with fresh tomatoes, bell peppers, onions, celery, cucumbers, olive oil, and vinegar. Spain
Making Soup ► Start with aromatic vegetables ► Add aroma and flavor when sautéed. ► Add three or four other vegetables. ► Add at different times ► Season and simmer until all ingredients are tender
Remember ►T►T►T►Thicken if needed ►T►T►T►Taste and adjust seasonings before serving ►G►G►G►Garnish to enhance
Stew ► Any dish prepared by stewing or simmering small pieces of food in tightly covered pan ► Most include vegetables, meat, poultry, or fish ► Less liquid that soup ► Other names – ragout (thick meaty highly seasoned) or fricassee (chicken stew)
Making a Stew ► Cut meat 1 to 2 inch cubes ► Dredge meat in flour and brown ► Drain excess fat off ► Sauté aromatic vegetables ► Return meat to pan, add seasonings and liquid to cover. Simmer till done - beef can take 2 -3 hours
Sauces ► Historically – used to cover taste of food going bad ► French elevated sauce – “the sauce is everything” ► Today – flavored liquid often thickened served to enhance the flavor of another food. ► Broad definition – catsup to elegant
Types ►H►H►H►Hollandaise – ►B►B►B►Basic White Sauce ►S►S►S►Stock based sauce – ►T►T►T►Tomato based sauce – ►O►O►O►Oil and Vinegar Sauce –These include Sweet and Sour and Marinades
Now you know ► So what is next ► Chose one of them and find the recipe. ► Have fun – be adventurous and try something new!