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The Circulatory System 1.Purpose of the circulation 2.~9% of population die from cardiovascular diseases 3.Components of the system A. Introduction a.Cardiovascular.

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Presentation on theme: "The Circulatory System 1.Purpose of the circulation 2.~9% of population die from cardiovascular diseases 3.Components of the system A. Introduction a.Cardiovascular."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Circulatory System 1.Purpose of the circulation 2.~9% of population die from cardiovascular diseases 3.Components of the system A. Introduction a.Cardiovascular system = blood, vessels, heart b.Lymphatic system = lymph, vessels, lymphoid organs 4.General route of the circulation

2 The Circulatory System 1.Formed elements B.Blood a.Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) i.Not a true cell ii.Hemoglobin b.Leukocytes (white blood cells, WBCs) (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, lymphocytes) c.Thrombocytes (platelets) 2.Plasma = 91.5% water, 8.5% solutes

3 The Circulatory System a.Atrial muscle mass b.Ventricular muscle mass c.Cardiac skeleton 1.Location C.Heart 2.Endocardium, myocardium (heart muscle), epicardium

4 The Circulatory System a.Right and left atrium b.Right and left ventricle c.Interatrial septum d.Interventricular septum 3.Chambers C.Heart 4.Valves a.Atrioventricular (AV) valves i.Tricuspid ii.Bicuspid (mitral) b.Semilunar valves

5 The Circulatory System a.Superior vena cava b.Inferior vena cava c.Pulmonary trunk  right and left pulmonary arteries d.Pulmonary veins e.Aorta 5.Great vessels C.Heart

6 The Circulatory System 6.Coronary arteries C.Heart right coronary artery left coronary artery marginal artery posterior interventricular artery anterior interventricular artery (left anterior descending a.) circumflex artery

7 The Circulatory System 7.Conduction system 8.Cardiac cycle C.Heart Arrows indicate direction of conduction sinoatrial nodeatrioventricular node AV bundle right bundle branch left bundle branch Purkinje fibers a.Systole b.Diastole 9.Cardiac output a.CO = SV x HR b.~5 L/min 10.Cardiac reserve

8 The Circulatory System 1.Structure D.Blood vessels a.Tunica intima (endothelium) b.Tunica media c.Tunica adventitia 2.Organization a.Heart  arteries  arterioles  b.Capillaries  c.Venules  veins with valves  heart

9 The Circulatory System 1.Organization E. Lymphatic system a.Lymph  lymphatic capillaries  b.Lymphatic vessels  lymph nodes  c.Lymph ducts  back to the blood 3.Functions a.Return tissue fluid to blood b.Production of lymphocytes = immunity c.Absorption of dietary lipids 2.Organs = bone marrow, nodes, thymus, spleen

10 The Circulatory System 1.Blood F. Age-related changes a.No major changes b.Total volume begins to decrease >80 c.Hematocrit and hemoglobin decrease >65 d.Plasma proteins tend to decrease, but fibrinogen (major clotting factor) tends to increase by 25% >70 e.Red marrow replaced by yellow marrow; new blood cell formation may decrease

11 The Circulatory System 2.Heart F. Age-related changes a.Slight reduction in size b.General decrease in size and number of myocardial cells, with some loss in strength c.Increased fat deposition on heart surface d.Lipofuscin accumulation in myocardial cells e.Endocardium and valves thicken and may sclerose

12 The Circulatory System 2.Heart F. Age-related changes f.Increase in elastin and reticular fibers, and fat, within cells of the conduction system g.Maximum oxygen consumption value begins to fall at 30; may be 40% reduction by 65 h.Heart rate decreases i.Cardiac output and cardiac reserve decrease

13 The Circulatory System 3.Blood vessels F. Age-related changes a.Loss of arterial elasticity (50% reduction >70) b.Increased collagen in walls of arterioles c.Narrowing of vessel internal diameters by gradual accumulation of lipid d.Venous walls thicken and calcify in spots e.Peripheral resistance gradually increases as a result of these changes f.Increased blood pressure

14 The Circulatory System 1.Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis G. Age-related dysfunctions a.Plaque formation due to excess LDLs i.Common locations ii.Plaques narrow vessel diameters iii.Promote clot formation iv.Arteriosclerosis formation b.Effects of smoking and coffee c.You can’t escape your heredity

15 The Circulatory System 2.Hypertension (pre = 130/80) (stage 1 = 140/90) G. Age-related dysfunctions a.Incidence increases with age (30% >65) b.Causes c.Effects i.Heart attack ii.Heart failure iii.Kidney failure iv.Rupture of blood vessels

16 The Circulatory System 3.Coronary artery disease G. Age-related dysfunctions a.Insufficient blood flow to cardiac muscle b.Leads to ischemic heart disease c.Normally, 65% maximum coronary blood flow at age 65 d.Atherosclerosis is #1 cause e.Treatment options

17 The Circulatory System 4.Angina pectoris G. Age-related dysfunctions a.Pain related to cardiac ischemia b.Result of progressively constricted coronary arteries c.Usually atherosclerosis-induced d.Occurs with exertion e.Always a harbinger of impending heart attack f.Treatments

18 The Circulatory System 5.Myocardial infarction (heart attack) G. Age-related dysfunctions a.Result of coronary artery blockage b.What is an infarction? c.Three zones of damage d.Effects i.Decreased cardiac output = decreased blood pressure ii.Venous accumulation of blood = pulmonary edema

19 The Circulatory System 6.Cardiac dysrhythmias G. Age-related dysfunctions a.Irregular heartbeats b.More common with age c.Not necessarily pathological d.Bradycardia vs. tachycardia e.Flutter vs. fibrillation f.Results g.Treatments

20 The Circulatory System 7.Congestive heart failure G. Age-related dysfunctions a.AKA = cardiac insufficiency – heart unable to pump enough blood to meet the body’s need b.If the left heart doesn’t pump out what it gets in, there is a damming effect in the lungs c.If the right heart doesn’t pump out what it gets in, there is a damming effect in the systemic veins d.Relationship to kidney function e.Treatments

21 end The Circulatory System H.Take home messages 1.No changes in volume, composition, or components of blood with aging 2.Heart enlarges and weakens as a result of CV disease 3.Blood pressure increases, while stroke volume, maximum heart rate, cardiac output, and cardiac reserve decrease 4.Valves thicken and calcify 5.Decreased elasticity of blood vessels


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