2What is Heart Disease?It is a broad term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart. But the ultimate problem with all varieties of heart disease is that, in one way or another, they can disrupt the vital pumping action of the heart.
3Types-Cardiomyopathy It is the deterioration of the function of the heart for whatever reason. Patients with cardiomyopathy are often at risk of arrhythmia and/or sudden cardiac death.Extrinsic cardiomyopathiesAlcoholic cardiomyopathy is caused by chronic long-term abuse of alcohol, which leads to heart failure.Coronary artery diseaseCongenital heart disease-is a disease that effects primarily at birth, and includes structural defects, congenital arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathyies.Ischemic cardiomyopathy- is a weakness in the heart muscle, due to inadequate oxygen delivery to the heart with coronary artery disease being the most common cause.Hypertensive cardiomyopathy- any number of complications of arterial hypertension.Valvular cardiomyopathy-Inflammatory cardiomyopathy-
4Cardiomyopathy Intrinsic cardiomyopathies Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)-most common, the heart (usually the left ventricle) is enlarged and pumping function is diminished.Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM or HOCM)-a genetic disorder, causing heart muscle to thicken, which can obstruct blood flow and prevent the heart from functioning properly.Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy(ARVC)-arises from an electrical malfunction of the heart in which heart muscle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue. Usually the right ventricle.Restrictive caridiomyopathy(RCM)-least common, the walls of the ventricles are stiff, but may not be thickened and resist the normal filling of the heart with blood.Noncompaction cardiomyopathy-the left ventricle wall has failed to properly grow from birth.
5Cardiovascular disease Refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.Is commonly referred to as atherosclerosisOther types are aneurysms, angina, arrhythmias, CVA, CHF, myocarditis, valve disease, coronary artery disease, edocarditis, hypertension, mitral valve prolapse, MI, venous thromboembolism.
6Hypertensive heart disease It’s a late complication of hypertension. Causing thickening of the heart, which in turn lowers the cardiac output.Could be caused by left ventricle hypertrophy, coronary heart disease, CHF, cardiac arrhythmias.Symptoms- fatigue, irregular pulse, edema, dyspnea, weight gain, nausea, SOB, bloating, greater need to urinate at night.
7Inflammatory heart disease Involves inflammation of the heart muscle and/or surrounding tissue.Endocarditis-inflammation of the endocardium, most commonly the valves.Myocarditis-inflammation of the myocardium. Usually caused by an infection.May present with rapid signs of heart failure, chest pain, or sudden death.
8Valvular heart disease It involves one or more of the heart valves.Some types are- aortic insufficiency, aortic valve stenosis, endocarditis, heart valve dysplasia, libman-sacks endocarditis, loeffler endocarditis, mitral regurgitation, mitral stenosis, mitral valve prolapse, pulmonary valve stenosis, tricuspid insufficiency, tricuspid valve stenosis.
9Aortic valve stenosisCaused by an incomplete opening of the aortic valve.Is often seen in patients with CHF.Patients that have both are attributed to a 2 year mortality rate of 50%.
10Mitral valve prolapseCharacterized as an abnormally thickened mitral valve.S/S-heart palpitations, atrial fibrillation, syncope, mitral regurgitation, or sudden death.These patients tend to have a low body mass index.
11Rheumatic heart disease It’s a condition in which the heart valves are damaged by rheumatic fever.Rheumatic fever begins with a strep throat infection.It is an inflammatory disease.It can affect many of the body’s connective tissues, especially those of the heart, joints, brain, or skin.Anyone can get it, but it usually occurs in children between the ages of 5 to 15.The rheumatic disease that results can last for life.
12Symptoms of Rheumatic heart disease They often go unnoticed for sometime, because this disease affects the valves. And often the damage isn’t immediately noticeable.This causes the valves to either not open/close completely.Also causes scarring of the heart valves, forcing the heart work harder.The damage may resolve on its own, or it may be permanent.Advanced cases may present with CHF.Other symptoms that may be present-fever, weight loss, fatigue and/or stomach pains.
14Coronary artery disease Is a condition in which plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. The plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in blood. When plaque build up in the arteries, it is called atherosclerosis.
15Coronary artery disease A common symptom of CAD is angina.If CAD causes heart failure, then you will likely see the patient short of breath.Some patients that have CAD have no signs or symptoms.MI’s usually are a result of a sudden occlusion of a coronary artery, from plaque breaking free.CAD can lead to angina, heart attack, heart failure and arrhythmias.
16Pre-hospital careCPR and defibrillation in the event of cardiac arrest.High concentration of oxygenPain relief-morphineAspirinDiesel
17Coronary artery disease Can be increased by smoking , obesity, physical inactivity.Genetic factors play a role, example disorders such as hypertension and hypothyroidism contribute to risk.Ways to prevent it are exercise, diet, aspirin, omega-3 fatty acids.
18Estimates for 2004 Hypertension-72 million CHD-15.8 million MI-7.9 millionAngina-8.9 millionStroke-5.7 millionCVDClaimed 871,5001 of ever 2.8 deaths147,000 <65From death rate declined 25%.CHD452,300 deathsSingle leading cause of death in America today.94-04 death rate declined 33%.
19SourcesBryan E. Bledsoe, Robert S. Porter, and Richard A Cherry. Paramedic Care. New Jersey:Brady, 2006.Mark H. Beers, Robert S. Porter, Thomas V. Jones, Justin L Kaplan, Michael Berkwrits. The Merck Manual:Eighteenth Edition. New Jersey:Merck Research Laboratories, 2006.Stephanie Trelogan. “What is Coronary Artery Disease?,” GeneticHealth. 2000, California. 9/12/2000.Mayoclinic.com. “Mitral valve prolapse,” Revolution Health April 25,Wikipedia. “Heart Disease,” Wikipedia. California, November 24,