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WASTE MANAGEMENT James M. Ebeling, Ph.D. Research Engineer Aquaculture Systems Technologies, LLC New Orleans, LA.

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Presentation on theme: "WASTE MANAGEMENT James M. Ebeling, Ph.D. Research Engineer Aquaculture Systems Technologies, LLC New Orleans, LA."— Presentation transcript:

1 WASTE MANAGEMENT James M. Ebeling, Ph.D. Research Engineer Aquaculture Systems Technologies, LLC New Orleans, LA

2 Solids Management

3 Effluent Treatment for: –Total Suspended Solids (TSS) –Settleable Solids –Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) –Total Phosphorus (TP) –Nitrogen Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) Nitrate Nitrogen (NO 3 -N) –Pathogens Solids Capture – Quick Review Removed with solids

4 Solids Capture – Quick Review Gravity Separation Settling Basins Quiescent Zones Off-line Settling Basins Tube/Plate Settlers Swirl Separators Physical Filtration Microscreen Filters (drum, disc, belt) Granular Media Filters

5 Solids Waste Characteristics Aquacultural Sludge Domestic Sludge Parameter RangeMeanRangeTypical Total Solids (%) 1.4– – TVS (% of TS) 74.6– –8065 BOD 5 (mg/L) 1,590–3,8702,7602,000–30,0006,000 TAN (mg/L) 6.8– – pH 6.0– – Alkalinity 284– –1,500600

6 Solids Mass Balance Feed O2O2 CO 2 AmmoniaBOD, TSS, N, P

7 Waste Management Overview Treatment processes result in captured solids that must be managed: Storage and Thickening Thickening and Stabilization Biosolids utilization and disposal Stabilization of solids for pathogen destruction

8 Solids Storage and Thickening Quiescent Zones Settling Basins

9 Solids Storage and Thickening Earthen Ponds

10 Solids Storage and Thickening Slurrystore Tanks Engineered Storage Products Company

11 Solids Thickening and Stabilization Captured solids require further dewatering: TSS Microscreen Filter Backwash % Quiescent Zone Siphon3-5% Quiescent Zone Siphon3-5%

12 Solids Thickening Solids must be thickened (dewatered) to reduce disposal costs/management. –Dewatering reduces sludge volume. –Sludge volume for 1,000 lb dry weight solids: –12,000 gal1% TSS –2,400 gal5% TSS –1,200 gal10% TSS –800 gal15% TSS

13 Solids Thickening Methods Processes to thicken clarifier/filter backwash solids: offline settling basins (sludge thickening tanks) wetlands or sand beds coagulation/flocculation belt filters GeoTextile Bags

14 Off-line Settling Basins Designed for solids collection, thickening and storage Intermittently loaded from –quiescent zone cleaning –filter backwashing –system cleaning

15 Off-line Settling Tanks at Freshwater Institute Off-line Settling Basins

16 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Off-line Settling Basins

17 LARGE structures with solids storage capacity Off-line Settling Basins Big Spring FCS (PA)

18 Off-line Settling Basins Design Idaho DEQ (1998) design criteria for off-line settling basins: overflow rate of ft 3 /sec flow per ft 2 surface area usually 3.5 ft deep usually built in pairs tank MUST capture 85% TSS TSS effluent CANNOT exceed 100 mg/L in 8 hr composite settleable solids effluent CANNOT exceed 1.0 ml/L in any sample

19 Off-line Settling Basin Solids Removal OPTION 1: Decant tank, harvest solids with backhoe or front end loader –Let solids dry for several days to 25% to 35% dry weight OPTION 2: Sprinkler application to adjacent fields –0.2% solids dry weight (after mixing solids) OPTION 3: Decant tank, then pump out manure –12% avg. solids dry weight –20% max. solids dry weight –pumping method influences % solids removed

20 Wetlands – Sand Beds Created Wetlands drying beds: combine solids dewatering and disposal sand drying bed planted with reeds plants facilitate dewatering loading kg dry solids per year per m 2 area 7-10 cm sludge at 2% solids every 7-21 days series of beds receive sequential batches store solids for 10 years

21 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Coagulation Process of decreasing or neutralizing the electric charge on suspended particles Flocculation Process of bringing together the microfloc particles to form large agglomerations by the binding action of flocculants Coagulation/Flocculation

22 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Suspended Solids Removal (Alum, Ferric Chloride, AMD) Alum in wastewater yields the following reaction : Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3  14 H 2 O + 3Ca(HCO 3 ) 2  3Ca SO 4 + 2Al(OH) 3 + 6CO H 2 O Insoluble aluminum hydroxide is a gelatinous floc Ferric Chloride in wastewater yield the following reaction : 2FeCl 3  6H 2 O+ 3Ca(HCO 3 ) 2  3CaCl 2 +2Fe(OH) CO H 2 O Insoluble ferric hydroxide is a gelatinous floc

23 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Phosphorus Removal (Alum, Ferric Chloride, AMD) Basic reaction: Al +3 + H n PO 4 3-n  AlPO 4 + nH + Fe +3 + H n PO 4 3-n  FePO 4 + nH +  Simplest form of reaction, bench-scale test required to establish actual removal rate

24 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Coagulation/Flocculation Aids (Polymers) low molecular weight polymers) charge neutralization (low molecular weight polymers) neutralize negative charge on particle neutralize negative charge on particle high molecular weight polymers) bridging between particles (high molecular weight polymers) long loops and tail connect particles long loops and tail connect particles

25 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Coagulation/Flocculation Aids (Polymers) High Molecular Weight Long-chain Polymers lower dosages requirements reduced sludge production easier storage and mixing MW and charge densities optimized “designer” aids no pH adjustment required polymers bridge many smaller particles improved floc resistance to shear forces Advantages:

26 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Evaluation: alum/polymers Polymer Optimum Dosage Total Suspended Solids (mg/L)Reactive Phosphorus (mg/L P) Raw sample Treated sample % RemovalRaw sample Treated sample % Removal LT mg/L557799% % LT mg/L % % E 383 mg/L % % A mg/L654799% % CE 8345 mg/L719499% % CE mg/L % %

27 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Synergetic Effect of alum/polymers Optimal Dosage Percent Removal Turbidity (NTU) Ciba Specialty Chemicalspolymer 50 mg/L alum / polymer polymer 50 mg/L alum / polymer Magnafloc LT 7990No Effect % Magnafloc LT mg/L † 886.4%95.3% Magnafloc LT mg/L491.6%95.4% Magnafloc LT mg/L685.1%96.3% Magnafloc LT 20No Effect % Magnafloc LT 22S1.0 mg/L † %94.8% Magnafloc LT 26No Effect % Magnafloc E mg/L345.1%95.8%

28 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Other WQ Effects of alum/polymers TANNO 2 -NNO 3 -NTNCBOD 5 COD (mg/L N) (mg/L) Initial Sample LT LT E A CE CE

29 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Belt Filter Coagulation/Flocculation Tank

30 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Belt Filter

31 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Belt Filter-Sludge Alum 13.2% ± 1.1 Polymer 11.6% ± 2.2 Alum/Polymer 12.6% ± 1.4

32 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course What is a Geotube ® ? Geotube ® containers are custom fabricated with seaming techniques that resist pressures during pumping operations. Geotubes are constructed of Mirafi® high strength woven geotextile High flow rate allows liquid to dewater, while containing solids.

33 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Benefits of Geotube ® Technology Effective high volume containment. Efficient dewatering & volume reduction. Cost effective. No special equipment required. Custom site specific fabrication. Lower equipment cost. Low maintenance. Low labor cost.

34 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Containment Dewatering Disposal

35 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Applications for Aquaculture Freshwater Applications Winter Storage of Biosolids Composting Marine Applications Tested by Miratech Marine benthic waste Marine fresh cage waste Hatchery recirculation and pass through waste Processing plant blood water Biofouling waste from cleaning shellfish cages Biofouling toxic waste (copper) from salmon net cleaning

36 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Research – Large Geobags Each of the three bags were operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 58.7 Liters/day/m 2 geotextile material. Solids pumped to the bags for 0.5 minutes each hour (24/7).

37 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Results of Study Bag InfluentBag Effluent% Removal TSS (mg/l)1875 ± ± ± 3 Total Phosphorus (mg/l)40.6 ± ± ± 12 Dissolved Reactive P (mg/l) 1.1 ± ± ± 574 Total Nitrogen (mg/l)63.8 ± ± 1232 ± 24 TAN (mg/l)1.7 ± ± ± 490 cBOD 5 (mg/l)517 ± ± 8047 ± Samples over 3 months

38 Biosolids Utilization/Disposal Composting Land Application –Slurry (<1% solids) –Thickened Sludge (>5% solids) Contract hauling

39 Composting

40 Composting Bin

41 Cantrell Creek Trout Farm (NC)

42 Land Application Liquid/Slurry Application –Solids are easily transferred and distributed when they are >1% solids –Designed as a Slow Rate Land Treatment (crop irrigation) Thickened Sludge Application –Designed as a soil amendment or fertilizer (as part of a crop nutrient management plan) –Applied from tanker trucks: surface spreading, incorporation, direct injection

43 Land Application When the solids content is less than 1%, solids and slurries are easily pumped and distributed

44 Contract Hauling

45 Questions?


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