Presentation on theme: "Day 10 Thickening and Gelling Agents Milk and Dairy Products."— Presentation transcript:
Day 10 Thickening and Gelling Agents Milk and Dairy Products
Words, Phrases, and Concepts Polysaccharides Thickening Gelling Type A gelatin Sheet or leaf gelatin Bloom rating To bloom gelatin Vegetable gum Amylose Amylopectin Starch granule Cereal starch Root starch Modified food starch Instant starch Gelatinization Starch retrogradation
Introduction To thicken or gel a food product: – Add an ingredient that is already thick. Sour cream, cream cheese, jams and jellies, syrups, fruit purees. Besides thickening, these ingredients add color, flavor, and nutrients. – Add an ingredient used exclusively for thickening and gelling. Gelatin. Vegetable gums. Starches. – Form an emulsion. Example: heavy cream. – Form a foam. Example: whipped cream. – Add eggs.
Thickening and Gelling Thickening occurs when water and other molecules or particles move around slowly. Example: Pectin or other large molecules bump and loosely tangle. Gelling occurs when water and other molecules or particles are prevented from moving around at all. Example: Pectin or other large molecules bond or tightly entangle.
Thickening and Gelling Almost any large molecule can thicken. – Polysaccharides are very large molecules Made of many (poly) sugar molecules (saccharides) linked together. Examples: Starch, vegetable gums. – Proteins are very large molecules Made of many amino acids linked together. Example: Gelatin. – Many, but not all, molecules that thicken will gel when used at a high enough level. Cornstarch thickens at low levels, gels at high levels. Guar gum thickens at low levels, becomes gummy but does not gel at high levels.
Gelatin – Forms an appealing crystal clear gel. Caution: gelatin forms lumps if not properly tempered into cold mixtures. – Melts quickly and cleanly in mouth. Caution: gelatin forms tough, rubbery gels if used at too high a level. – Is an animal protein. Not allowed in strict vegetarian diets. Sources of gelatin: – Pigskin (Type A gelatin). – Cattle bones and hides (Type B gelatin). – Fish (isinglass). Type A gelatin, from pigskin, is by far the most common; not allowed in kosher (Jewish) or halal (Islamic) diets.
Gelatin Gelatin gels as it cools. Tiny strands slow, coil up, tangle, and stack up into fragile junctions. Water gets trapped within this three-dimensional web. Fragile gel is easily dissolved with body heat.
Gelatin Gelatin (Type A) is produced in a series of steps. 1.Chopped cleaned pigskins are soaked in cold acid. Breaks down connective tissue: Rigid, ropelike collagen protein fibers are transformed into smaller invisible strands of gelatin. 2.Hot water is used for dissolving gelatin and extracting it from pigskins. Process is repeated up to six times. Each extraction occurs at a progressively higher temperature. As extraction temperature increases, quality of gelatin goes down. Gelatin solution is purified, concentrated, and formed into sheets or noodles. 3.Sheets or noodles are dried and ground into powder.
Gelatin Sheet gelatin: – Is also called leaf gelatin. – Is made by further processing powdered gelatin. Powdered gelatin is redissolved then cast into a thin film. – As with powdered gelatin, sheet gelatin is available in different grades, or Bloom ratings. Bloom rating is a measure of gel strength. – Most gelatin ranges from about 50 to 300 on the Bloom scale. – The higher the Bloom rating, the firmer the gel and the faster it sets. Also, The lighter, clearer it appears and the milder it tastes. The shorter, less stringy the gel.
Gelatin Bloom rating – Of common powdered gelatin is about 230. – Of sheet gelatin is often designated by the name of a precious metal. Silver and bronze sheet gelatin are most common types in North America. Notice the weight of the sheet changes with the Bloom rating. If a formula calls for ten sheets, use ten sheets, no matter the Bloom rating.
Gelatin How to Use 1.Bloom gelatin first, so it is less likely to clump. To bloom gelatin means to add it to a cold liquid to hydrate. Use almost any cold liquid; water is most common. Caution: Raw pineapple and kiwi juice contain an enzyme, a protease, that breaks down and liquefies gelatin. Caution: Liquids high in acid, like lemon juice, can weaken gelatin, although they will not completely liquefy it. Wait 5 to 10 minutes, for gelatin to fully absorb water. 2.Heat the bloomed gelatin gently, or add to hot liquid, to melt. Caution: Do not overheat, or gelatin could weaken.
Gelatin Differences between powder and sheets – Bloomed differently. Sheets are typically added to excess water, then removed and gently squeezed. Example : Take care that water is room temperature or cooler, so sheets do not dissolve completely. Powdered gelatin is typically added to a measured amount of cold water. – Measured differently. Sheets are typically counted. – Easy to do with small amounts. – With large amounts, easier to weigh. Powder is weighed.
Gelatin Switching between different grades of sheet gelatin – When counted, make a one-for-one substitution. Example: If a formula calls for five gelatin sheets, use five sheets of any grade gelatin; manufacturer adjusts weight per sheet, to compensate for different gel strengths. – When weighed, account for differences in Bloom ratings by adjusting weights. Example: Instead of 100 grams of bronze sheets, use 76 grams of silver sheets: 100 grams ÷ 3.3 grams/bronze sheet = 30.3 sheets X 2.5 grams/silver sheet
Gelatin Switching between sheet and powdered gelatin – An approximate conversion is as follows: 17 sheets = 1 ounce (28 grams) gelatin powder. – Conversion depends on actual Bloom rating of powdered gelatin. Always prepare a test batch to confirm that conversion works; adjust as necessary. Note: water for blooming gelatin is generally listed in formulas that call for powdered gelatin but not for formulas calling for sheets bloomed in excess water.
Vegetable Gums Vegetable gums – Are polysaccharides that absorb large quantities of water. – Some thicken only; some also gel. Are not gummy when properly used. – Examples: Pectin. Agar. Carrageenan. Guar gum and locust bean gum. Gum arabic. Gum tragacanth. Xanthan gum. Methylcellulose.
Vegetable Gums Pectin – High in certain fruits: apples, plums, cranberries, raspberries, citrus peel. Can be made into jams and jellies without added pectin. – Produces attractive clear gel, with clean flavor and pleasant mouthfeel. – Can purchase pure pectin as dry powder. – Requires proper amount of sugar and acid to gel. – Uses: mirrors, glazes, jams and jellies, bakery fillings, fruit confections.
Vegetable Gums Agar – Also called agar-agar, or kanten. – Extracted from red seaweed. – Purchase as strands, flakes, or dry powder. – To use: boil until dissolved. Strands are first soaked in water, to soften.
Vegetable Gums Agar (cont.) – Nicknamed the “vegetable gelatin.” Forms clear gels, similar to gelatin. Cannot be whipped as gelatin can. Used in place of gelatin whenever dietary or religious restrictions warrant its use. Much less agar is needed than gelatin: start with conversion of 8:1, or eight parts gelatin to one part agar. – Uses: piping gels, gelled confections and desserts, for stabilizing icings and fillings, as a substitute for gelatin (in non-aerated products).
Vegetable Gums Guar gum and locust bean gum – Extracted from the endosperm of beans. – Locust bean gum is also called carob gum. – Uses In ice cream and frozen pasteurized egg whites, to thicken and prevent ice crystal growth. In cream cheese and sour cream, to thicken, add creaminess, and prevent separation of liquid.
Vegetable Gums Xanthan gum – From the fermentation of a microorganism. – Forms a flexible film that traps air and leavening gases. – Provides flexibility to doughs; helps them hold together. – Main use in bakeshop: gluten-free baked goods.
Starches Starch molecules – Polysaccharides consisting of many glucose units bonded together. – Two types. Amylose; straight-chained. Amylopectin; branched.
Starches Starch granules – Small gritty particles tightly packed with starch molecules. – Found in Cereal grains. – Examples: corn, rice, wheat. Roots and tubers. – Examples: potatoes, arrowroot, and yuca (also called cassava or manioc). – Vary in size and shape, depending on the starch. Potato granules are relatively large and oval; cornstarch granules are much smaller and more angular. – Grow larger as the plant ages. Starch molecules are arranged as concentric rings within the granule, much as growth rings form on a tree as it matures.
Starches Different starches have different properties because of differences in – Size and shape of granules. – Amount of amylose/amylopectin or size of molecules.
Starches Cereal starches – Extracted from endosperm of corn, rice, wheat. – Cornstarch is most common. Inexpensive and readily available. A general purpose starch. Compared to many other starches, is high in amylose. Has some disadvantages over certain other starches: – Cloudy. – Not stable in freezer. – Has a cereal taste; masks flavors.
Starches Root starches – Extracted from the tubers (roots) of plants. Potato, arrowroot, yuca. – In general, are lower in amylose and higher in amylopectin. – Use instead of cornstarch: Where clarity, clean flavor, and a soft gel are desirable. In gluten-free baked goods. – Gelatinize sooner than cornstarch, for less grittiness.
Starches Tapioca is most common root starch. – Extracted from yuca, also called cassava or manioc. – Processed into pearls, for use in sauces and pie fillings. Require soaking, sometimes for hours or overnight; quick-cooking granules require only short soaking. Reduces stringiness.
Starches Modified food starch – Starch is treated with chemicals to modify its properties. – Main reason for use: stability. Less likely to thin out when exposed to too much heat or acid. Less likely to tighten and weep when frozen. – Any starch can be modified, but many modified starches are made from waxy maize starch. – Some are cook-up starches and others are instant.
Starches Instant starch – Thickens and gels without heat. – Most are also modified, for stability. – Also called pregelatinized or cold-water swelling starch. – To use: Slowly add to cold liquids, while whisking or stirring. If necessary, blend dry starch with about four parts sugar or other dry ingredient, to prevent clumping. – Uses: for last-minute thickening; for heat-sensitive products.
Starches Starch gelatinization – Occurs when starch is heated in presence of water. Granules lose their orderliness and swell from large amounts of water moving in. Water becomes trapped inside swollen granules, causing liquids to thicken. – Too much heat results in degraded granules and a loss of thickening.
Starches For maximum thickening and gelling: – Cook for the proper length of time. Follow formula’s method of preparation carefully. In general, cornstarch mixtures are boiled gently for two-three minutes. – Need granules to swell and trap water but do not want granules to degrade.
Starches Cook time will depend on: – Type of starch. Root starches typically gelatinize sooner than cornstarch. – Presence of tenderizers. Sweeteners and fats slow down the cooking of starch because they slow the swelling of granules. With formulas high in sugar, withhold half the sugar until after starch has gelatinized. – Presence of acid. Acid speeds up the cooking of starch because it breaks apart starch granules and breaks down starch molecules. With formulas high in acid, reduce cook time, increase the amount of starch, or add acid after mixture is cooked and cooled. Or, use a modified food starch.
Starches Starch molecules bond over time, once cooled. – Process is called retrogradation. – In creams and pie fillings, Gel shrinks and toughens. Weeping often occurs, where water squeezes out of tightening gel. Especially likely to occur: – With cornstarch-based products. – When products are frozen. – In baked goods, Crumb stales, that is, it becomes dry, hard, and crumbly. Especially likely to occur – With products made from lean doughs, such as baguettes. – When products are refrigerated.
Functions of Thickening and Gelling Agents Providing a thickened or gelled texture. – Thickening and gelling are forms of structure building. Starch, in particular, contributes to the structure of baked goods. – Increasing stability. Thickening and gelling agents are sometimes called stabilizers, meaning that they prevent undesirable changes from occurring in foods. Examples: gelatin and whipped cream; guar gum and frozen egg whites.
Functions of Thickening and Gelling Agents Providing gloss or sheen to sauces, fillings, and glazes. – Many thickening and gelling agents form a smooth layer that clings to the surfaces of ingredients. – Smooth layers reflect light in a way that provides gloss or sheen. Example: mirror glazes on cakes, made with gelatin or pectin. Additional Functions – Softening and tenderizing baked goods. – Absorbing moisture.
Storage and Handling Store gelatin, gums, and starches covered. – Prevents them from absorbing moisture and clumping. To use: separate dry particles (gelatin, gum, or starch) before heating. – Blend with other dry ingredients, such as granulated sugar. Rule of thumb: use about four parts sugar with one part dry starch. – Blend with fat, such as butter or oil. – Add first to cold water, to hydrate. Works with cook-up starches, gelatin, agar and many gums. Does not work with instant starches.
Commercial Processes Pasteurization. – Heat treatment to eliminate pathogenic (disease- causing) microorganisms. – Different methods: High-temperature, short-time (HTST); most common means. Ultra-high-temperature (UHT); also called ultrapasteurization. – Longer shelf life but slightly different flavor.
Commercial Processes Homogenization. – Prevents cream from separating and rising to top of milk. – Milk forced through small openings: Breaks milk fat into tiny droplets. Forms a stable emulsion. Effect of homogenization on milk fat in whole milk (a) unhomogenized, (b) homogenized
Commercial Processes Separation. – Milk is spun fast in a separator; separates cream from milk. Separator is a type of centrifuge; works like a salad spinner. Cream is lighter, less dense; spins off from heavier milk.
Commercial Processes The ability to separate out the fat from milk allows for a range of products with different milk fat contents.
Makeup of Milk Milk is composed of: – Mostly water. – Milk fat and molecules dissolved in it, including: Small amounts of emulsifiers, carotenoid colors, rich dairy flavors. – Milk solids not fat (MSNF), including: Protein, lactose (milk sugar), ash (minerals).
Makeup of Milk Two main types of milk proteins: – Casein proteins: Provide opaque whiteness to milk. Thicken and gel as they coagulate; easily coagulated with acids or enzymes. – Important in the manufacture of cheeses, yogurt, sour cream. – Whey proteins: In clear greenish liquid called whey. Form a film along pan bottoms and surface of heated milk; to prevent: add sugar to milk and stir as it heats.
Makeup of Milk Lactose: – Milk sugar. Provides slight sweet flavor to milk. A disaccharide; consists of glucose and galactose. – Lactose intolerance: intestinal discomfort after consuming milk and milk products. Body does not contain enough of the enzyme lactase to break down lactose into glucose and galactose. – Yeast are lactose intolerant, that is, they cannot ferment lactose.
Milk Products Fluid Milk – Classified by its fat content. Whole milk is highest in milk fat: 3.25% or higher. – Best for freshest dairy flavor. Use in baked custards, cream pies, custard sauce, ice cream, pastry cream. – Usually heated before added to yeast doughs.
Milk Products Dry Milk – Also called DMS: dry milk solids. Two types: High heat DMS; in yeast doughs and other baked goods. Low heat DMS; in ice cream, to increase milk solids. – Made by removing most of the water from whole or fat- free milk. Fat in whole dry milk oxidizes easily to rancid off-flavor. Fat-free (nonfat) dry milk, NFDM, has a longer shelf life. – Advantages over fluid milk: takes up less space and needs no refrigeration. – To use: blend with dry ingredients or cream with butter or shortening.
Milk Products Cream – Usually UHT pasteurized, for extended shelf life. – Richer flavor, thicker consistency than milk. – Heavy cream (36 – 40% milk fat) forms the most stable whipped cream. – Light cream can be made by mixing equal parts heavy cream and whole milk.
Milk Products Cream (cont.)
Milk Products Evaporated and Sweetened Condensed Milks – Purchased in cans; shelf stable. – Low-fat and fat-free versions available. – Both made by removing water from milk. Evaporated milk contains twice the milk fat and twice the MSNF as whole fluid milk. Sweetened condensed milk has additional water removed and contains added sugar. – Are not interchangeable. Sweetened condensed is thicker, sweeter, denser; has more caramelized color and flavor. Can be used in Mexican flan. – Uses: pumpkin pie, smooth fudge, caramel, as a cream substitute.
Milk Products Cultured Dairy Products – Are fermented products, made by adding live bacteria “cultures.” Most common bacteria culture: lactic acid bacteria, which ferment lactose into lactic acid. – Generally tolerated by those with lactose intolerance, because they are low in lactose. – Includes: Cultured buttermilk. Yogurt. Sour cream. Crème fraîche. Clotted cream.
Milk Products Cheeses – Made by forming curds and separating out the liquid whey. Curds consist of coagulated casein proteins, with some liquid whey still trapped inside. – Most are cultured dairy products; live bacteria produce the acid that coagulates the casein. – Ripened (aged) or unripened (fresh, not aged). – Most common in bakeshop: unripened cheeses. Cream cheese, Neufchâtel, baker’s cheese. Ricotta. Mascarpone. Quark.
Functions of Milk and Milk Products Main Functions – Increasing crust color. From Maillard browning of milk proteins and sugar (lactose). – Delaying staling. – Increasing crust softness. Bread made with milk will have soft rather than crisp crust. – Blending flavors and providing richness in flavor. – Providing fine, even crumb to baked goods. – Forming a stable foam. Cream whips into foam, stiffened and stabilized by solid fat crystals. Milk proteins whip into foam; example: cappuccino froth, whipped evaporated milk.
Functions of Milk and Milk Products Other Functions – Aiding in the creaming of shortening. Dry milk solids only. – Absorbing moisture. Adding DMS to doughs requires the addition, ounce for ounce, of additional water. – Aiding in the coagulation of egg proteins. Custards made with water (or soy, almond milks) are not as firm as those made with milk. – Providing moisture. Milk is mostly water (about 88% water). Heavy cream is over 50% water. – Adding nutritional value.
Storage and Handling All milk products absorb odors; cover properly. Fluid milk: – Spoilage bacteria can grow and sour milk; discard. – Light causes flavor changes, loss of vitamins. Cultured dairy products: have longer shelf life. – Will become increasingly sour over time. – Mold can grow; discard. Soft, unripened cheeses – High in moisture and highly perishable (will mold). Nonfat DMS: – Can clump; keep cool and dry, and sift, if necessary.
LABS All Groups: Panna Cotta Strawberry Sauce Pate choux Gr 3- Whip 1# Mascarpone Gr 4- Whip 1# Mascarpone/ 4 oz. heavy cream
Lab Panna Cotta- Amount of Gelatin Gr 1: 1 % powder Gr 2: ½ % powder Gr 3: 1 ½ % powder Gr 4: Leaf- 1% (1 leaf= 1.5 g powder)
Lab Strawberry Sauce 1 oz/pint Gr 1: Corn starch Gr 2: Arrowroot Gr 3: Potato starch Gr 4: Cake flour MOP: Make slurry with starch, 1 oz. sugar and 5 oz puree Bring puree to boil- add slurry- bring to boil- boil 2 minutes
Pate Choux Pg. 371 Gr 1- Milk Gr 2- Water Gr 3- Milk; Butter Gr 4- Water, Butter