Presentation on theme: "Fauna Flora Landscapes Gardens. China is one of the countries with the most abundant plant life In the world. There are more than 32,000 species of higher."— Presentation transcript:
China is one of the countries with the most abundant plant life In the world. There are more than 32,000 species of higher plants, and almost all the major plants that grow in the northern hemisphere’s frigid, temperate and tropical zones are represented in China. In addition, there are more than 7,000species of woody plants, including 2,800-odd tree species. China is also the home to more than 2,000 species of edible plants, 3,000 species of medicinal plants, and a wide variety of flowering plants.
The lotus flower is one of the most ancient and deepest symbols of our planet. The lotus flower grows in muddy water and rises above the surface to bloom with remarkable beauty. At night the flower closes and sinks underwater, at dawn it rises and opens again. Untouched by the impurity, lotus symbolizes the purity, of heart and mind. The lotus flower represents long life, health, honor and good luck.
The seedlings are started in seedling beds and, after 30 to 50 days, are transplanted by hand to the fields, which have been flooded by rain or river water. During the growing season, irrigation is maintained by dike- controlled canals or by hand watering. The fields are allowed to drain before cutting. When the rice is ready to harvest, they drain the water into lakes. In some parts of the world they grow dry rice, usually in hills and mountains where there is not a lot of water. Methods of growing differ greatly in different localities, but in most Asian countries the traditional hand methods of cultivating and harvesting rice are still practiced. The fields are prepared by plowing (typically with simple plows drawn by water buffalo), fertilizing (usually with dung or sewage), and smoothing (by dragging a log over them). RICE GROWING
ginkgo bonsai bamboobamboo The oldest tree in the world which first appeared during the Jurassic age some million years ago. ginkgo
Bamboo is one of the four favorite plants along with Chinese plum, orchid and chrysanthemum, the so- called Four Men of Honor by the Chinese. The characters of the four plants are highly admired by the Chinese so they want to be just like the four plants. In turn, the plants have possessed some human nature. This is an example of the harmony between nature and human being. There are 400 types of bamboo used to make many goods: chopsticks, flute, paintbrushes or carvings.
Classical Chinese Gardens are full of fish ponds, artificial lakes, pavillions and arched-bridges. They are not very large but fascinating in their delicate design, demonstrating various styles depending on the tastes of dynasty emperors. Nevertheless, they have one thing in common. Their design is based on Zen concept which refers to human’s life.
Zen Concept reads as follows: “The arrangement of rocks (representing mountains), sand (representing a stream of water – the flow of life) and sparse vegetation is symbolic of an individual’s journey through life. A rock symbolizing Mount stands in the northeastern corner. A stream of imaginary water flows rapidly from the rock, representing youth. Then various obstacles present themselves, with the “tigerhead stone” representing tragedy. The flow of water is checked and slowed by the stones and a rocky wall, meaning doubt and contradiction, and the water swirls as if lost and confused. Once the stream moves past this point, it becomes faster and wider, having learned from hard experience. In the middle of this section of the stream, a turtle is observed trying to swim against the flow, demonstrating the pointlessness of trying to return to the past. The southern end of the garden is empty, composed only of white sand, which symbolizes the mind freed from thoughts and emotions”.
China is one of the countries with the greatest diversity of wildlife in the world. There are more than 4,400 species of vertebrates in China, which accounts for more than10 per cent of the world’s total. Wildlife peculiar to China includes such well-known animals as the giant panda, snub-nosed monkey, South China tiger, brown-eared pheasant, white-flag dolphin, Chinese alligator and red-crowned crane, totaling more than 100 species
An adult panda weighs approximately 250 kg and eats about 30 kilograms of bamboo daily. It lives in captivity for 35 years, while in wild 27 on average. When it’s 1 year old, it starts eating bamboo, half a year later has the first teeth. At the age of 5, it can deliver own baby; usually each panda has 1 to 3 offsprings, artificially inseminated. In wild
The Giant Panda Breeding Base near Czengdu provides very good conditions for their survival, similar to their natural habitat. About 100 pandas live on the area of 20, 000 hectares, enjoying freedom in wild.
Trained cormorants on leashes are used to fish for small trout. To prevent them swallowing the fish they catch, the birds are fitted with small rings around their necks. The boats that carry the birds work at night so a bright lamp is suspended from the bow to attract the fish.
China abounds in rivers. More than 1,500 rivers each drain 1,000 square kms or larger areas. Major large rivers rise from Tibet Plateau, and most rivers in China flow east and empty into the Pacific Ocean. The Yangtze, 6,300 kilometers in length, is the largest river in China, and the third longest in the world. The 5,464- kilometre-long Yellow River, the second longest in China, is reputed as one of the “Cradles of the Chinese Civilisation”.
Few countries boast such majestic and intriguing landscape as China. The vast country has both the imposing mountains and graceful rivers, and the picturesque water-towns (like Venice of East); both the snow-covered scenery in the north and luxuriant vegetation in the south; as well as vast Gobi, boundless deserts and endless grasslands.
China’s topography is varied and complicated. The splendid land of the country is glorified by far-reaching mountain chains, mountain-rimmed basins, magnificent and undulate highlands as well as boundless plains. The terrain gradually descends like a four-step staircase: 1 step – Tibet Plateau called the Roof of the World at 4,000 m above the sea level; 2 step – Inner Mongolia and Sichuan Basins – an elevation of 1,000 to 2,000 m a.s.l 3 step – the North China Plain and others – 500 to 1,000 m a.s.l 4 step – the land extends out into the ocean – the water is less than 200 metres deep. Turpan lies in depression – 154 m below sea level – and is the hottest place on the Earth. It’s a typical oasis town to which water is routed from distant glaciers through the irrigation channel system called “Karez”.
The highlands and mountain regions account for two-thirds of the country’s total land mass. Chinese chose 9 mountains and hailed them sacred – 4 Buddhists and 5 Taoist; the heighest being Mount Emei which lies at 3,099 metres in Sichuan basin. It’s known as the place of Buddhist Rites of Bodhisattva who gained the highest level of enlightenment but gave up entering the state of “Nirvana” to help all beings on the Earth.
The Rock is treated as a Tower of Strength, something stable, giving us support in need and the feeling of security. That’s why in nearly every town, park or any public place there is a rock in its centre. The rock could be also a symbol epitomizing a mountain which is considered sacred by the Chinese or Japanese. Consequently, Far East Asian like taking photos of themselves next to the rocks.
Tourists come here to relish breathtaking sights – snow-capped peaks, foaming waterfalls, hypnotizing lakes of wide colour spectrum, especially: jade, emerald and sapphire or turquoise. This enchanting view is thanks to algae, short-wave radiation and light dispersion JUIZHAIGOU – VALLEY OF NINE VILLAGES
It consists of 3 sections: the forest park, Tianzi mountain and Suoxi valley, but can also boast of two unique attractions: the biggest external lift, with entry in the Guinness Record Book because reaches the height of 326 metres within 118 seconds; the highest natural bridge in the world over the precipice of 300 metres in the form of 40 metre long ridge (rock arch).
China’s long and winding coastline is indented by many fine harbours and beaches,cut out for the joy and relaxation of holidaymakers. Hajnan Island called also Hawaii of Orient or Hell Gates because of scorching hot is a paradise for vacationers owing to sandy beaches, exotic palm trees and luxurious hotels. However, the biggest attraction of this area, specially in November, are beautiful girls who come here every year as 100 candidates for the Beauty Contest” Miss of the World”.
Most of China territory lies in the Temperate Zone, with a small part extending south into the Tropical and Subtropical Zones and the northernmost tip close to the Frigid Zone. China has a marked continental monsoon climate characterized by great variety. Northerly winds prevail in winter, while southerly winds reign in summer. The four seasons are quite distinct. The rainy season coincides with the hot season. The warm and moist summer monsoons from the oceans bring abundant rainfall and high temperatures.
To abound in sth/abundant – obfitować w coś To relish breathtaking views – rozkoszować się To live in captivity – żyć w niewoli To live in wild/ at large – na wolnosci Artificially inseminated – sztucznie zapłodniony Boundless/ endless plains – bezkresne równiny Edible plants-- jadalne Impurity = contamination – zanieczyszczenie It rises at dawn – budzi się do życia o świcie Be peculiar to sth = specific for Flowers bloom or are in blossom – rozkwitaja It accounts for 10% - to stanowi 10% To hail sth sacred – okrzyknać coś/kogoś świętym To epitomize sth – być uosobieniem czegoś Offsprings – potomstwo A pheasant and a crane- bażant i żuraw To prevail in winter – dominować zimą To coincide sth with sth – zbiegać się w czasie 80-odd woody plants – osiemdziesiąt kilka USEFUL PHRASES:
AUTHORS: Karolina Dudek & Danuta Mirońska European School Club Liceum Ogólnokształcące 1 39-300 Mielec Poland Source: Best Scenery & Sights in China, Internet, personal photos