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Throw a monkey wrench into quantum mechanics Presenter: Rob Vucic STAO 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Throw a monkey wrench into quantum mechanics Presenter: Rob Vucic STAO 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Throw a monkey wrench into quantum mechanics Presenter: Rob Vucic STAO 2010

2 The Interferometer Michelson-Morley’s experiment proved that there is no ether

3 Einstein –cartoon physics Cartoon Book

4 Time Dilation Experiments – The Hafele–Keating experiment performed in 1971 – flying eastward, plane’s clock is moving faster than ground clock (the clock should run slower) – flying westward, plane’s clock is moving slower than ground clock (the clock should run faster) – A general relativity effect states that clocks run faster at higher altitudes (farther away in a gravitational field)

5 Time Dilation Experiments Predicted Nanosecond GainMeasured Nanosecond Gain Special Relativity General Relativity Total Effect eastward -184     10 westward 96     7 Original Experiment – 10% precision 1976 Experiment – 1 % precision 1996 Experiment - predicted 39.8 ns gain and measured a 39.0 ns gain

6 Time Dilation Experiments – The Pound-Rebka experiment performed in 1959 – Light travelling upward in the gravitational field of the earth should be red shifted – Light travelling downward in the gravitational field of the earth should be blue shifted – If an atom has electrons in the excited state, they release photons of specific energy – Those photons can re-excite the electrons but only if they are at the appropriate energy – If the photons are red shifted, then no excitation occurs

7 Time Dilation Experiments Original experiment 1959 – 10% precision Repeated by Pound-Snider – 1% precision Repeated with a hydrogen maser – 0.01% precision

8 Time Dilation In Practice 24 GPS satellites in earth orbit km above earth with a period of about 12 hours and a speed of km/h Each satellite carries an atomic clock with an accuracy of 1 ns Use triangulation to determine position to within 5 m Need 20 – 30 ns accuracy to work On-board atomic clocks fall behind by about 7  s per day according to special relativity On-board atomic clocks run faster by about 45  s per day according to general relativity That is a 38  s or ns effect Thus we need to correct the clocks – otherwise the navigational position would be incorrect after 2 minutes... or 10 km each day

9 The adjustment factor See in handouts page 3

10 Other effects length contraction mass increase kinetic energy

11 e=mc 2 This is profound Matter can be converted into a lot of energy (i.e. nuclear fusion – kJ/mol) Energy can be converted to mass...matter can be created

12 General Relativity There is no gravity Space-time 1919 Observation of stars in the vicinity of the sun during a total solar eclipse Gravity Probe B

13 Rutherford’s model of the atom is unstable

14 Michael Crichton’s Science at the end of a century – Introduction to Timeline Science at the end of a century – Introduction to Timeline

15 Blackbody Radiation phet app - dy-spectrum dy-spectrum Equinox black body radiation effect on communications &lpg=PA8&ots=8pvfd- 4z9b&dq=autumn%20equinox%20%2Btelevision %20interruption&pg=PA8 &lpg=PA8&ots=8pvfd- 4z9b&dq=autumn%20equinox%20%2Btelevision %20interruption&pg=PA8 Measuring plank’s constant

16 LED Experiment See in handouts on page 1-2

17 Photoelectric effect and Digital Cameras See in handouts page 4 and 5

18 Compton Effect Light has momentum

19 Pair Production and Annihilation Light can be transformed into matter and anti- matter

20 DeBroglie You have a wavelength

21 The Uncertainty Principle Quantum Teleportation preview.pdf preview.pdf

22 Particle Adventure

23 Books to read


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