WW1 Effects at Home Fear of Immigrants and Communism led to the 1 st Red Scare-over 4,000 arrested, over 500 deported. – No issue of Habeas Corpus Fear of workers’ strikes in general – connected to communism? (Proletariat Revolution) Palmer Raids – Attorney General ordered raids of communist headquarters in 33 cities without any warrants (unconstitutional) Return of KKK – targets anyone not white, protestant, and American born ~ 100,000 join in 1920 America limits immigration- 1920’s Quota Acts Foreign Policy back to ISOLATIONISM!!! Attempts to avoid future wars: Washington Naval Conference-limits battleships Kellogg-Briand Pact-Outlawed War?!?
Falsely Accused? Italian immigrants and professed anarchists Accused and convicted of a murder in relation to a robbery Evidence was lacking against them leading many to believe they were convicted because of beliefs and nationality Executed in 1927 Cleared of wrongdoing in 1977 by Massachusetts Governor
Politics and Business in the 1920’s 3 Republicans were elected President during the ‘20’s:Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover. Laissez-faire is back! All favored Big Business-end of Prog. Reforms Revenue Acts of 1921 + 1926: Lowered taxes for the wealthy and businesses. Trickle Down Theory-economic theory-1980’s lowering taxes for wealthy-wealthy will spend more on goods-creating demand and jobs Tariffs are raised-encourage buying American
“We are closer to the end of poverty than at any time in history” – Herbert Hoover’s campaign slogan
Reasons for the 20’s Prosperity(wealth)Boom Years Mass Production-Frederick Taylor use of Scientific Management-study of how to make things efficient- assembly line.-produced more, cheaper-Ford’s Model T-1908-$850 Employment-demand for goods led to more jobs, higher salaries-Auto-Steel,Rubber,Suburbs- Credit-companies offered installment plans-buy now pay later-75% of all goods w/credit. Stock Market Speculation-Buying Stocks-Companies make $$-Risky for investors
Criticism of Wealth/Materialism The Lost Generation- Group of writers who criticized the materialism of the decade. F. Scott Fitzgerald-The Great Gatsby
Social Changes in the 20’s During WW1, workers were needed for the war effort, so many Black Americans moved to Northern Cities such as Chicago, Detroit and NY. -Great Migration In NYC many Black Americans moved to Harlem Many were artists, musicians and writers who contributed to what became known as The Harlem Renaissance.
Women in the 20’s 19 th Amendment 1920 Women’s Suffrage/vote Flappers-Young women who challenge societies view of women Smoked +Drank in public Short hair+skirts, more makeup + jewelery
The Scopes Monkey Trial Tennessee didn’t allow teaching of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Science Teacher John Scopes broke this law. A trial followed, and the argument arose, should this scientific theory be allowed in direct conflict to Creationism- Adam and Eve.
Comparing Decades Socially, the 1920’s are often compared to which decade? 1960’s- Why? African Americans, Women, Illegal Drug Use. Economically, the 20’s are often compared to which decade(s)? 1980’s + 2000’s- Why? Trickle Down Theory, Favor Wealthy and Business-Republicans in power
Marcus Garvey, Flappers, Lost Generation, Frederick Taylor, Trickle Down Theory, Speakeasies, Sacco/Vanzetti, Scopes Trial, Henry Ford, Herbert Hoover, Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Langston Hughes, F.Scott Fitzgerald, George “Babe” Ruth, Duke Ellington, Charlie Chaplin, Revenue Acts, Flappers, 18 th Amendment, 19 th Amendment, Model T,