Presentation on theme: "Emotion, Stress & Health"— Presentation transcript:
1Emotion, Stress & Health Identify socio-economic, psychological, cultural, and personal “stressors.”How can stressors be a detriment to your life both now and into the future?Identify positive strategies for coping w/ stressors.Compare and Contrast the following three theories on emotion : James-Lange, Cannon-Baird, two-factor analysis.Do we wear our emotions on our sleeves?
2Mind and Body Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body?Two-way communication between mind and body
3Psychosomatic Medicine Psyche (mind)Soma (body)Butterflies in the stomachAnxious before giving speechIndigestion, nauseaStress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
4Relieve stress - Coping Mechanisms MeditationListening to soothing musicTaking a quiet walk/ any exerciseJournalingGo to conservatory, aquariumHang out w/ friendsBecome organizedSLOW DOWN!! STOP TAKING ON MORE THAN YOU CAN HANDLEEliminate butterflies - stomach breathing exercises
5Brain and Adrenal Cortex Prolonged stress leads to the secretion of the adrenal hormone cortisolCortisol (stress hormone) elevates blood sugar and increases metabolism.Body is then able to sustain prolonged activityAlso reduces inflammation
6Affects on long-term health Attitude towards illness can affect healing.Thought, beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health.Link between mind and body is the immune system.
7Biological Response to Emotion Scream, Run away…infers fear.Gut reaction:Heart races, energy boost.What coordinates body response?Again, observable behavior is inferring an emotion, fear, to observers.Facial expression, tremor, jumping, swinging arms, sweatingAbsence seizures are operationally defined as a blank stare, no talking, no moving, then doing something without obvious reasons like walking down the hall and sitting in an unfamiliar room.I knew someone who had these seizures and that’s a good description, although our teacher used to stop her from leaving. Then she would snap out of it and after assessing the environment, go back to her work. We only noticed a few times.The point is, we need to be conscious to feel emotion.
9James-Lange TheoryAutonomic arousal and skeletal actions come before emotional responseI experience fear because I run awayCognitive awareness is separateBrain can categorize events as pleasant or unpleasant in as little as 120 millisecondsWhat we experience as an emotion is actually the label we give to our response.I am afraid because I run awayI am angry because I attackHere is what James and Lange thought about fear and other emotions’ effect on us.
10James-Lange Key Assumptions: Body’s response comes before emotion Each specific emotion produces a different body responseI think most people would not imagine themselves to be tranquil in this situation.
11Common Sense (Cannon-Baird) vs. James-Lange Common Sense (CB)?Frightening SituationFearRunning Away and Increased Heart rate etc.James-Lange TheoryRunning Away and Increased Heart rate etc.Give the bus example here:You are at a cross walk in England. Instinctively you look to the left first as you step onto the road, forgetting that the cars drive on the left side of the road in England. You see out of the corner of your eye that there is a bus coming fast at you from the right. Decision timeIn an instant, your body reacts and you fall backward faster than you thought you could to avoid the bus.Do you think that you told your muscles to move in exactly the right emphasis, direction and order to get you out of the way or did your reflexes do that job and you only knew what had happened after you were lying on your back, safe on the sidewalk?
12Two stage theory Schachter-Singer Theory Physiological changes happen first.Followed by cognitive labeling.Heart rate goes up.If in graveyard fear.If at a party excitement.
16Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others. What is Emotion?Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.Emotions are private experiences.We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings.We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.We cannot know for sure if any other species has emotionOperational definition is a constructed definition using parameters to describe what fits the definition and what doesn’t.ex. Op. def. of joy might include: smiling, laughing, not a blank stare
17Four components of Emotion Significant life event
18Feeling component Emotions are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way.Anger or joy.Meaning and personal significance.Vary in intensity and quality.Rooted in mental processes (labeling).
19Bodily Arousal Biological activation. Autonomic and hormonal systems. Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.Body prepared for action.Alert posture, clenched fists.
20Purposive component Give emotion its goal-directed force. Motivation to take action.Cope with emotion-causing circumstances.Why people benefit from emotions.Social and evolutionary advantage.
21Social-Expressive component Emotion’s communicative aspect.Postures, gestures, vocalizations, facial expressions make our emotions public.Verbal and nonverbal communication.Helps us interpret the situation.How person reacts to event.
22Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Reactions Every situation calls for its own special mixture of arousal by the sympathetic (fight or flight) and parasympathetic (conservation of energy) N.S.Flight or Flight: Sympathetic response prepares body to meet a crisis.Rest or Digest: Parasympathetic calms body to aid in digestion.
23Sympathetic and Parasympathetic flow of Autonomic Nervous System
24Limbic System Brain mechanism in emotion A group of structures in the interior of brainForm a border around brain stemCritical for emotionThis happens to me all the time. Someone asks me what someone said and I have trouble remembering the words but have a strong sense of how it made me feel.There was an example in the book about a man with brain damage causing severe memory impairment. He knew what emotion to relate to a person but did not remember ever meeting them.
26LeDoux and the snake Walking in woods. See what may be a snake. Limbic system responds first: CAUTION! STOP!Cortex catches up a second or two later.Poisonous?
27Emotion and Cognitive Paths Visual thalamusVisual cortexAmygdala
28Stress and HealthStress is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it.Failing gradesScary movieEven positive events in your life such as:GraduationNew jobStress activates the Autonomic Nervous System rapidlyStress activates the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis more slowly.Both systems have major effect on health and well-being.
29Short term reaction to stress Level of responsivenessSympathetic NS easily triggered.Hostile heart syndrome.Tense, impatient.Road rage causes 4X more accidents than drunk driving.
30Executive Monkey (Brady) Pair of monkeys.Both could get shock.One monkey could press bar to avoid shock for him and his yoked control.Monkey with active bar called “active” monkey.Other monkey in pair called “passive”.One member of pair likely to get ulcers.Which one?
31Brady’s experiment Active monkey is on the left. Press lever to avoid shock.Passive monkey is on the right.Pressing the lever does not affect shock deliveryActive Passive
32Brady’s mistakeBrady found executive (active) monkeys got more ulcers.First monkey to learn task active.Attempts to replicate yield the opposite result: passive monkeys get ulcers.Passive monkeys lack control over situation.More stressful if you have no control over occurrence of stress.
33Reducing the effects of stress Stress is less harmful ifHave some control (even if just belief).Predictable (“going to feel a little pinch”).Know the duration.Coping mechanism.Some way to relieve stress.Positive attitude.Active participant in process.
34Long term stress What if stress continues for months or years? Stressful occupations: air traffic controllersWhether stress is real or imagined doesn’t matter to the brain and body.Respond in the same way.Brain activates the adrenal cortex.
35Response to injury Sprains ankle. Inflammation causes swelling and pain.Reduce ability to move.Life threatening injury.Cortisol reduces inflammation.Mobilizes energy.Survival value.
36General Adaptation Syndrome Phases of GAS1: Alarm reaction:Body’s first response.2: Resistance:Body adapts to stressor.3: Exhaustion:Body breaks down.Changes in immune systemHans SelyeFather of Stress
37GAS timeline Alarm Resistance Exhaustion Immune function and energy
38The Immune SystemCells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.Like a police forceToo weak and criminals (viruses etc.) run wildToo strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:The body’s own cells (Autoimmune disease)Ex. Rheumatoid arthritis
39Immune system Leukocytes (White blood cells) Most important elements Patrol the blood & fluidsAntigens: Intruders have different surface proteins (nonself) than our own (self)WBCs attack antigensMacrophages and B Cells are specific defensesT cells: cytotoxic and helperCytotoxic: direct attackHelper: stimulates Ts & B’s to multiply rapidly
41Effects of Stress on Immune System Psychoneuroimmunology:The study of the relationship between the nervous system and immune systems.All experiences, especially stressful ones, can alter the immune system.The Immune system in turn influences the central nervous system.
42Effects of StressContinued, long term anxiety, anger or stress is harmful.A body focused on the cycle of increased cortisol & increased metabolism, it is not producing new proteins for the immune system and other systems.High cortisol levels damage hippocampusLearning and memory suffer as a resultThree mile island is a location in New Jersey that is home to a nuclear power plant that had a very near miss catasrophy.The people living nearby were tested after the fact to see the effects on their immune system as a result of the added stress of living so close to a potential meltdown site. The results helped us to know more about the effects of stress on the body.
43Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Traumatic experience leads to:Months or even years of flashbacks and nightmaresExaggerated arousal response to noises etc.Avoidance of reminders of the eventCombat veterans, rape victims, 9/11Most PTSD victims have a smaller than average hippocampusDid PTSD cause the hippocampus to shrink or did the smaller than average hippocampus cause this person to be more vulnerable to PTSD?We can’t know unless we had an MRI of the PTSD sufferer’s brain BEFORE they experienced the trauma.
44Emotions, Stress and Health They are all intricately related.