String Problems are Perceptual Problems The chimp must understand the relationship between the string and its connection to the basket. Most animals would understand that pulling on the string would swing the basket sufficient to empty the fruit. No chimp learned to untie the not and lower the basket.
Monkeys come with preset biases. No monkeys is totally naïve. Monkey is trained (shaped) with one object to expect the reward to be under the object.
Learning--To--Learn A problem is constructed of many different sundry of small, differing in color, size shape (object quality of cues). Two objects are randomly chosen to constitute one problem for object discrimination. 500 such two objects problems are constructed.
Object Discrimination A given problem is presented with the two objects of a given problem covering the two food-wells on the form board of the WGTA Animals job is to discriminate between the two objects such that it can obtain the hidden food reward.
Incomplete learning on each problem Each problem is presented for only 6 trials. No problem is repeated. Problem are grouped in 50 to 100 problem groups All groups look at the mean response for trial 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, respectively and plotted as a curve.
Two Types of Learning in Learning-Set Intra-problem: The learning seen within a given problem, the behavior across trial 2- 6. Inter-problem: The learning based on groups of problems; 1-8,……..,252-312.
ERROR FACTOR Response tendencies that have to be suppressed in order to demonstrate learning a rule
Differential Cue On trial n, a correct response reinforces both the object quality of the stimulus and the position of the object. To select the negative object on trail N irrespective of position and having responded correctly on trial N-1, is a differ.ential cue error
STIMULUS PERSEVERATION Selecting the same objects on trial n when not rewarded on trial -1.
RESPONSE SHIFT Selection of the non-rewarded object on trial n+1 after successfully responding to the rewarded object on trial n.
POSITION HABIT Repetitive responses to either the right or left food-well, regardless of the position of the correct object. Also known as a perseveration error of position. The term is also used in human psychological testing.
How do the sequences of responses vary trial-by- trial?
Use a forced choice on the first trial. One can force the monkey to be correct or make an error on the first trial by loading each food well with food or loading no food-well with food respectively. One next looks at the next 4 response sequence to define how the animal is responding.
Lateral hemisphere showing prefrontal cortex Anterior to the arcuate sulcus (ASD, ASV), surface of 8, banks and depths of PS (principal sulcus, 46D, 46V), and 9. All of the surface you see except the olfactory trace and the tip of the temporal lobe.
Delayed Response A time delay is imposed between when the animal sees the placement of the reward and when the animal is allowed to respond to recover the reward.