Presentation on theme: "Primate Learning. Class of Primates Four Major Classes of Primates."— Presentation transcript:
Class of Primates Four Major Classes of Primates
Great Apes Man (1) (The world) Gorilla (2)(Africa) Chimpanzee (3) (Africa) Orang-u-tan (1)(Borneo & Sumatra) Gibbon (3) (South East Asia & India)
Monkeys New World (Platyrhine – flat nose) Old World (Catyrhine – snout nose) Simans (restricted to the Island of Madacascar
The Macaques 14 Varieties of Macaques
Macca mullata Rhesus monkey – best known and researched monkey of all monkeys used
Insight What is meant by the term insight?
Tie the two strings together problem
Wolfgang Köhler Insight in Anthropoid Apes The studies were the work done while interred on the island of Tenerifeff for the duration of WWI Mentality of Apes
The problems used by Köhler Classic string and basket problems Roundabout (Umveg) problems (Where in space is one?) Use of implement problems (tool use) Manipulating objects
String, mechanical connection problem
String Problems are Perceptual Problems The chimp must understand the relationship between the string and its connection to the basket. Most animals would understand that pulling on the string would swing the basket sufficient to empty the fruit. No chimp learned to untie the not and lower the basket.
Roundabout (Umveg) problems
Here the chimp must turn its back and loose sight of the reinforcement, traversing a path away from the reward to find a path to the reward.
Tool Use Construct a tool using implements found in the environment
Sulton: fitting two stick together to make a longer stick to retrieve a hanging reward
How to make a long stick Only Sultan learned to put two sticks together as a solution to the problem. It required that he played with sticks before the problem was given to him.
Using a climb-”uponable”
Observation by Sultan, box stacking by Grande. The insight: box stacking Note the vicarious use of the hand by Sultan
Trial and Error Learning Within Insight Learning Note the necessity to learn how to stack boxes within the concept of how to achieve a higher goal.
Insight in progress
Build together but not in common
Climb “uponable” and use of stick
The work of Harry Harlow Hypothesis: Can one teach a monkey to learn how to learn. Short hand: Can one teach insight to a monkey
Wisconsin General Test Apparatus (WGTA)
Monkeys come with preset biases. No monkeys is totally naïve. Monkey is trained (shaped) with one object to expect the reward to be under the object.
Learning--To--Learn A problem is constructed of many different sundry of small, differing in color, size shape (object quality of cues). Two objects are randomly chosen to constitute one problem for object discrimination. 500 such two objects problems are constructed.
Object Discrimination A given problem is presented with the two objects of a given problem covering the two food-wells on the form board of the WGTA Animals job is to discriminate between the two objects such that it can obtain the hidden food reward.
Incomplete learning on each problem Each problem is presented for only 6 trials. No problem is repeated. Problem are grouped in 50 to 100 problem groups All groups look at the mean response for trial 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, respectively and plotted as a curve.
Two Types of Learning in Learning-Set Intra-problem: The learning seen within a given problem, the behavior across trial Inter-problem: The learning based on groups of problems; 1-8,……..,
ERROR FACTOR Response tendencies that have to be suppressed in order to demonstrate learning a rule
Differential Cue On trial n, a correct response reinforces both the object quality of the stimulus and the position of the object. To select the negative object on trail N irrespective of position and having responded correctly on trial N-1, is a differ.ential cue error
STIMULUS PERSEVERATION Selecting the same objects on trial n when not rewarded on trial -1.
RESPONSE SHIFT Selection of the non-rewarded object on trial n+1 after successfully responding to the rewarded object on trial n.
POSITION HABIT Repetitive responses to either the right or left food-well, regardless of the position of the correct object. Also known as a perseveration error of position. The term is also used in human psychological testing.
How do the sequences of responses vary trial-by- trial?
Use a forced choice on the first trial. One can force the monkey to be correct or make an error on the first trial by loading each food well with food or loading no food-well with food respectively. One next looks at the next 4 response sequence to define how the animal is responding.
Analysis of the data as by rule formation Monkeys are not naïve. The monkeys can be thought to respond as though they have a rule which guides their behavior. Guide by rule are called hypotheses.
THERE ARE NINE, AND ONLY NINE, HYPOTHESIS OR RULES THAT MIGHT CONTROL THE MONKEY’S BEHAVIOR IN A OBJECT DISCRIMINATION TASK.
THE RULE WIN-STAY, LOOSE-SHIFT
WHAT TASK CAN BE USED TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THE MONKEY USES A RULE TO SOLVE LEARNING SET PROBLEMS?
Reversal Learning Only two objects are presented to the monkey over the course of learning
Position (right, left) of the correct object is randomized
The object chosen to be correct is correct for a fixed number of trials ( 3 or more trials) or to a criterion of behavior (9 correct responses out of 10 responses)
Data is grouped into blocks of problems (reversal of reinforcement) in terms of percentage of correct responses.
ODDITY LEARNING The learning of that which is odd when surrounded by similar objects.
Higher Ordered Learning Learning that uses two or more cues to solve the problem.
An-if-then (contingent ) problem Color of the tray is the operating cue to use for the decision of which object to choose.
Weigl Oddity problem Background cue color Two objects of the same form Two objects the same color
Weigl Oddity USE TRAY BACKGROUND CUE TO CHOOSE – BLACK BACKGROUND CHOOOSE ODD FORM; WHITE BACKGROUND CHOOSE ODD COLOR
A very difficult problem The best performance is found in monkeys over 6 years old At best the monkey will be 86 percent correct
Lateral hemisphere showing prefrontal cortex Anterior to the arcuate sulcus (ASD, ASV), surface of 8, banks and depths of PS (principal sulcus, 46D, 46V), and 9. All of the surface you see except the olfactory trace and the tip of the temporal lobe.
Delayed Response A time delay is imposed between when the animal sees the placement of the reward and when the animal is allowed to respond to recover the reward.
Wisconsin General Test Apparatus WGTA
AGE RELATED DELAY RESPONSE
Hamilton search task The monkey must search the boxes to find the reward. If the reward is in box x on trial n, there is no chance for the reward to be in box x on trial n+1.
TWO TYPES OF ERRORS IN THE HAMILTON SERCH TASK PERSEVERATION ERROR – RETURNING TO A BOX PREVIOUSLY VISITED. SEQUENCE ERRORS – NOT A TRUE ERROR. SHOWS LACK OF CONSISTANCY
Perseverative errors, Hamilton Search Task
Sequence errors – Hamilton Search Task
TASKS THAT ARE EFFECTED BY PREFRONTAL DAMAGE IN MONKEYS AND MAN
ALL THE TASK WE HAVE SEEN Learning set Reversal learning Delay response Oddity Wiegle Oddity Non-match to sample. Hamilton Search Task
DELAY OF RESPONSE CHANGES IS THE MOST DRAMATICALLY AND IMMEDIATELY SEEN ON RECOUVERY FROM PREFRONTAL REMOVAL.