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Carnivorous Plants Beautiful, Strange and Truly Wondrous Nepenthes hamata.

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Presentation on theme: "Carnivorous Plants Beautiful, Strange and Truly Wondrous Nepenthes hamata."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carnivorous Plants Beautiful, Strange and Truly Wondrous Nepenthes hamata

2 Carnivorous Plants Adapted for nutrient- poor soils, wet climates, bright light Like all green plants, photosynthesize (I.e. they’re producers) Utilize excess sugars from photosynthesis (which only requires sunlight, water, and CO 2 ) as bait Attract and absorb macronutrients P-K-N (e.g. fertilizer) from prey Hence, the adaptation of carnivory turns plentiful sunlight and water into essential nutrients that allow the plants to compete in impoverished soils Classic examples of ecological resource trading

3 Carnivorous Plants Soil with low mineral content (usually acidic) Plenty of pure water (no salts, dissolved solids, metals, etc.) Lots of sunlight Little competition from alien species Prey (mostly for flowering and fruiting) As can be expected from this list, most are extremely endangered: –Development of the coastal swamps of the Southeast USA –Deforestation of SE Asia –Pollution of wetlands –Imported competition (Purple Loosestrife) As a result, almost all species have similar needs

4 Genera of Carnivorous Plants Active traps (“steel trap” and “trap door”) Aldrovanda Dionaea Utricularia Other/passive (Minnow traps) Genlisea Sticky traps (flypaper) Byblis Drosera Drosophyllum Pinguicula Pitfall traps (pitchers) Darlingtonia Cephalotus Heliamphora Nepenthes Sarracenia Over 550 Species; three basic trapping mechanisms

5 Venus Flytrap Dionaea muscipula Active traps

6 Venus Flytrap Dionaea muscipula Flowers and seeds Trigger hairs

7 Drosera – The Sundews Sticky traps

8 D.citrina D.dichro- sepala D.echino- blasta D.ericksoniaeD.mannii D. microscapa D. occidentalis D.oreo- podeon D.paleacea paleacea D.pulchella (pink) D.ericks. x pulchella D.silvicolaD.spilosD.sp.WarriupD.stelliflora

9 Drosera multifida

10 Drosera capensis

11 Drosera capensis in action!!! Sticky traps + Leaf blade movement to aid digestion

12 Tuberous Sundew Drosera peltata

13 Other stickies: Byblis liniflora The Rainbow Plant Sticky traps

14 Other stickies: Pinguicula The Butterworts Sticky traps

15 Sarracenia - North American Pitcher Plants S.purpurea Pitfall traps

16 Sarracenia flava

17 Sarracenia leucophylla and Sarracenia psittacina

18 Flytrap and Sarracenia Care High light levels (full sun is usually best) Never allow to dry out Use pure water with few dissolved solids or salts (deionized/distilled/ reverse osmosis/rainwater) No fertilizer! Use peat moss based medium (mix w/ lime- free sand or perlite) All are native to the USA (Flytraps from North Carolina)… …and require a dormancy period

19 Drosera Care Temperate –Similar to Dionaea and Sarracenia needs –But may tolerate dilute fertilizer: ¼ strength Mir-acid –And lower light levels Pygmy –Dormancy required –May reproduce asexually by gemmae Tuberous –Need dormancy generally in the summer in USA –Can tolerate direct sun –Some seeds actually need to be exposed to fire to germinate.

20 Nepenthes - “Monkey Cup” Tropical Vine Pitcher Plant N.lowii N.burbidgeae Pitfall traps

21 Pitcher size from 1” to more than 2 liters Leaves up to 1 meter length Some scramble, some climb many meters Rats and baby monkeys have been found in pitchers Nepenthes - “Monkey Cup” Tropical Vine Pitcher Plant Over 100 species distributed in SE Asia Found from sea level to m elevation Credit: Malesiana Tropicals

22 Nepenthes Care More tolerant of minerals in the water and drought Separated into “Lowland” ( 1000m) species Lowlands expect 20+°C and high humidity at all times (~ terrarium) Highland species expect (and often need) a cool night and open, less damp medium (sphagnum) Some highlands even grow as epiphytes. No dormancy Propagated from cuttings, tissue culture, and sometimes seed

23 Nepenthes ampullaria “”detritivore” Lowland species

24 Large lowland species: span 2m, vines 8+m Symbiotic with ant species Nepenthes bicalcarata

25 Nepenthes albomarginata (blue spotted form) Highland species Lowland species Specialized to eat termites

26 Nepenthes campanulata Lowland species Nepenthes gracilis

27 Nepenthes truncata Lowland species

28 Highland species Nepenthes aristolochioides Highland species

29 Nepenthes macrophylla Highland species

30 Cephalotus follicularis Albany Pitcher Plant Pitfall traps

31 Darlingtonia californica Cobra Lily Pitfall traps

32 South American Pitcher Plant Heliamphora heterodoxa Pitfall traps

33 Carnivorous Plant Societies International Carnivorous Plant Society –www.carnivorousplants.org New England Carnivorous Plant Society –Roger Williams Park, Providence, RI –www.necps.org N.bicalcarata


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