2The layers of the Amazon Rainforests are very tall, dense forests made up of lots of plants and animals.They can beseparated intofour different layers:Different plants andanimals live in each layer
3The layers of the Amazon Emergent layerThis is the tops of the tallest trees in the forest. They can be up to 200 feet tall! This layer gets lots of sunlight.Can you stand up and stretch your arms up like the trees in this layer?
4The layers of the Amazon CanopyThis is the main roof of the forest. All the treetops grow closely together. There are lots of fruits and flowers to eat which means lots of animals live in this layer.Can you stretch your arms out wide like the trees in the canopy?
5The layers of the Amazon UnderstoryThis layer is made up of smaller trees and plants. Not much sunlight gets through the layer above so the plants have big leaves to catch the sunlight where they can.Now sit down and spread your hands and arms widelike the plants in the understory.
6The layers of the Amazon Forest floorHardly any sunlight reaches the bottom layer so it is dark and stuffy here. Not many plants can grow here but there are lots of dead leaves which makes it a good home for insects.Can you curl up tight like the leaves on the forest floor?
7Guess the layerNow you know what each layer is like, can you guess which layer of the Amazon these animals live in…If you think emergent, then stand up really tall and put your hands in the air.If you think canopy then stand up with your arms out wideIf you think the understory then sit down with your arms and hands stretched out in front of youIf you think the forest floor then curl up really small.
24Adapted for lifeAfter a species of animal has lived in a habitat with a specific set of conditions for millions of years, it’s body can begin to change, making it easier to survive there.These changes are called adaptations.
25Adapted for life Animals can adapt in different ways. Sometimes an adaptation will help them to find food.On other occasions it will allow them to live in extremely hot or cold conditions.
26Adapted for lifeLook at the pictures of these animals from the Amazon rainforest and try to identify what their adaptation is and how it helps them…
32Adapted for lifeTapirThe tapir has developed a long flexible nose which it uses to rummage on the ground for food.
33Adapted for life Toucan Many of the nuts and fruits in the Amazon have developed a tough outer layer to help protect them from being eaten.This doesn’t work with a toucan though as they have developed a huge tough beak which they can use for cracking most nuts.
35Adapted for life Jaguar The jaguar has developed the perfect disguise for the dappled light which falls on the forest floor – it’s beautiful spotted coat!
36Adapted for life Spider monkey The spider monkey lives at the top of tall trees in the Amazon, almost never coming to the ground.It has developed an incredibly strong and flexible tail which it can use as an extra arm to hang from when collecting fruit.
37TranspirationPlants play a vital role in creating humidity. The leaves of every plant give off water vapour in a process called transpiration. In the Amazon rainforest the trees and plants pass millions of litres of water vapour into the air each day. This vapour forms thick clouds of tiny water droplets, which is why the rainforest is always wet!
38Transpiration Please label redrawn Image to read ‘water is Sucked up the stem andInto the leaves’ insteadof capillary actionOther labels remainunchanged
39PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis is the process that plants use to make food from the sunlight and the water in the ground. Green leaves take in water and carbon dioxide and turn them into glucose (sugar) and oxygen.
40PhotosynthesisRedraw diagram withMuch larger leavesAnd remove the labelChlorophyllThe glucose flows to all parts of the plant giving it the energy it needs to grow. The oxygen escapes through tiny holes in the underside of the leaves back into the atmosphere.
41PhotosynthesisWe need places like the Amazon rainforest because the densely packed trees and plants help to absorb the carbon dioxide that we generate and turn it back into oxygen for us to breathe – fresh clean air. Insert panned out image of Amazon rainforest
42Nature trailCompare the animals you met on your nature trail to these animals which can be found in the Amazon rainforest!
43Nature trailThe titan beetle can grow up to 16.5 centimetres long!
49Food chainsAll living things (plants and animals) need energy to survive.Plants normally get their energy through capturing the sun’s energy (photosynthesis).Animals either need to eat plants (e.g. leaves or fruit) or other animals in order to create energy.
50Food chains Food chains can be used to show what eats what. For example….Leaves AntsA food chain must always start with a plant as they catch their energy from the sun.
51Food chainsA food chain can only travel in one direction. This direction is shown using an arrow.E.g. the monkey eats the fruit, the ocelot eats the monkey.Fruit Spider monkey Ocelot
52The water cycleThe water cycle is the name for the journey which water takes from the sky to the earth and back again.
53The water cycle It relies on three really important processes: Evaporation: This is when water heats up and turns from a liquid to a gas.Condensation: The opposite of evaporation, when water turns from a gas to a liquid.Precipitation: This is water that falls from the sky. It could be in the form of rain, snow, sleet or hail.
54The water cycleThe water cycle is really important because it keeps bringing fresh water to the land.Look at the diagram on your worksheet and see if you can attach the correct label to each part of the water cycle to show how it works.
55The carbon cycleAll living things are made from carbon. This includes animals, trees and flowers!Carbon is even part of the air we breathe. When it is attached to oxygen it is called carbon dioxide.Plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to grow. They absorb the carbon dioxide and turn it into carbon which they store.
56The carbon cycleWhen plants die and decompose the carbon they had stored inside them goes back into the earth.This can then be absorbed by other plants who use it to grow.It can also turn into fossil fuels although this can take millions of years.
57The carbon cycleWhen we burn fossil fuels or trees the carbon that they had stored inside them goes back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.This can all be shown as the carbon cycle.
60The carbon cycleIf we burn down lots of trees and fossil fuels then more carbon dioxide will go into the atmosphere.If we have destroyed lots of trees then there will also be fewer available to absorb the carbon dioxide so some will stay in the atmosphere.Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is one of the main contributors to climate change.