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Living Primates Professor Janaki Natalie Parikh

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Presentation on theme: "Living Primates Professor Janaki Natalie Parikh"— Presentation transcript:

1 Living Primates Professor Janaki Natalie Parikh

2 Types of Primate Social Organization –Monogamous Mated Pair –Multi Male/Multi Female –Single Male/ Multi Female –Most common in primates?

3 Single-male, multi-female Sing. Male, multi-female, FLDS style!

4 Correlation btwn dimorphism & type of soc. organization Levels of dimorphism:monogamy Levels of dimorphism & Predation pressure:multi- multi- Levels of dimorphism &single- Predation pressure:multi-

5 Habitat & Social Organization Home range: larger area exploited by an organism Territory: portion of an organisms home range that is aggresively defended against whom? con specifics: members of own same species

6 Suborder: Prosimii (Prosimians)  Most closely resemble the earliest primates  At first, widely distributed, but anthropoids outcompeted them, thus shifted their activity patterns  Lemuriformes (Lemurs) & Lorisiformes (Lorises) are considered Strepsirhines  Tarsiformes are Haplorhines, once considered Prosimians, now being reclassified w/ Anthropoids

7 Prosimii Lemuriformes (Lemurs)  Madagascar: only remaining diurnal prosimians  Wet rhinarium: moist nose  Post-orbital bar (lowest degree of skeletal protection)  Toilet claws  Dental comb: procumbent incisors  Diverse Social Organization 

8 Prosimians: Ring tailed lemurs Family lemuridae, Lemur catta Indigenous: Madagascar (notice the diurnal pattern) Endangered species

9 Prosimians: Pygmy Mouse Lemur Family Lemuridae Indigenous: Madagascar World’s smallest primate! (Endangered)

10 Prosimians: Red fronted lemurs Family lemuridae, (E. fulvus rufus) Indigenous: Madagascar Threatened species (habitat destruction)

11 Prosimians: Black Lemur Family lemuridae, E. macaco Vulnerable species, one subspecies now believed to be extinct

12 Prosimii Lorisiformes (Lorises)  Found in Africa & Asia(Noyau soc. org)  Nocturnal activity patterns  Wet rhinarium: moist nose  Post-orbital bar (lowest degree of skeletal protection)  Toilet claws  Dental comb: procumbent incisors

13 Prosimians: Pygmy Lorises  Family: Loridae, N. pygmaeus  Indigenous: Cambodia, China, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam

14 Prosimians: Slow Loris Family Loridae: N. coucang Status: Endangered (oft. Killed for “medicinal properties”) (attempts to make them pets)

15 Anthropoids:Tarsiformes (Tarsiers)  Found in SE Asia  Monogamous social organization  Nocturnal Activity Patterns  Nostrils (no wet rhinarium)  Incomplete p.o. septum (intermed. protection)  Toilet claws

16 Anthropoids Tarsiformes (Tarsier)  Family Tarsiidae  Indigenous: SE Asian Islands: Borneo, Sumatra & Phillipines

17 Suborder: Anthropoidea PlatyrrhiniCatarrhini (New World Monkeys)(Old World Monkeys) “flat nosed” –“hook nosed” - thick nasal septumnarrow nasal septum Dental formulasDental formula 2: 1: 3: 3 or 2: 1: 2: 3 2: 1: 3: 2 Incisors: Canines: Premolars: Molars

18 Anthropoidea Platyrrhines (New World Monkeys) CallitrichidaeCebidae (Callitrichids)(Cebids) -smaller-larger -quadrupedal-also quadrupedal -often regularly-some w/ birth twinsprehensile tails

19 Callitrichidae GGolden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalie) & cotton toppped tamarin (S. oedipus) IIndigenous: Brazilian coastal forest SStatus: Critically Endangered (Habitat fragmentation)

20 Platyrrhini- Cebidae SSpider monkey (A. geoffroyi) IIndigenous: Central & South America SStatus: Critically endangered h ((Howlers link)

21 Catarrhini Cercopithecoidea (Old World Monkeys)  bilophodont molar pattern  CP3 complex: diastema to allow for occlusion  Ischial collosities: thick, callused padding on ischium  Estrus & estrus swelling: specific time period in the female’s cycle where she is fertile & thus, sexually receptive  Social grooming & social dominance hierarchy  ↑ Sexual dimorphism: differences btwn males & females of a species, unrelated to their genitalia  Hunt spontaneously & opportunisitically, not a socially coordinated activity 

22 Catarrhines- Cercopithecoids  Baboons & Mandrills (P. Anubis & M. sphinx)  Indigenous: East & West Africa (from Cameroon to Guinea)  Status: Vulnerable species  Extremely pronounced canines only in males, purpose? 

23 Catarrhines: Old World Monkeys  Japanese macaques (snow monkeys, M. fuscata)  Indigenous: Japan & free range pop. in Texas  Clip regarding the acquisition of innovation: washing food 

24 Catarrhini Hominoidea  Hominoids = all apes & all humans, whereas Hominids (family level) only humans species  No external tail, brachiator anatomy  Wide & shallow chest compared to quadruped  Shorter backbone and 360° shoulder rotation  IMI (inter-membral index): Apes high IMI (longer arms), monkeys IMI approx 100 (equal lengths), human low IMI (longer legs)

25 Hominoid Family Hylobatidae  Gibbons & siamangs, Indigenous:SE Asia rainforest  Classic brachiators, very low sexual dimorphism  Status: Endangered 

26 Hominoid Pongidae  Orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus) (plight of orphaned orangs)  Indigenous: Sumatra & Borneo (SE Asian Islands)  Critically endangered (may see tot. loss by 2010!)  Arboreal & fist walking

27 Hominoid Pongidae  Chimpanzees: Common & Bonobo (Genus Pan)  Indigenous: Equatorial “belt” in Africa  Over 98.5% DNA match w/ us, Bonobo sexuality studies  Endangered: habitat loss, bush meat l l  Knuckle-walking l l

28 Hominoid Pongidae  Gorillas (Genus Gorilla) 2 species: mountain & lowland  Largest of all living primates, exclusively vegetarian  Status: Endangered: habitat destruction, poaching & bush meat  Knuckle walking

29 Primates: Is there anything we can do to help save them?   Global Warming & primate species   Who Am I? Example:  Narrow nasal septum  Bilophodont molar pattern  Bold coloration of snout & hindquartersAnswer?

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