Presentation on theme: " WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE HUMAN?. Every human being is a product of a. Biology b. Society c. Personal experiences In other words we are a product of heredity."— Presentation transcript:
Every human being is a product of a. Biology b. Society c. Personal experiences In other words we are a product of heredity (NATURE) and environment (NURTURE). The debate
SOCIOBIOLOGY: the systematic study of how biology affects social behavior. Sociobiologists assert that nature, in the form of our genetic makeup, is a major factor in shaping human behavior.
Zoologist who pioneered sociobiology. Believed that genetic inheritance underlies many forms of social behavior: ◦ War and peace ◦ Envy and concern for others ◦ Competition and cooperation
Sociologists focus on how humans design their own culture and transmit it from generation to generation through socialization. Most sociologists disagree with the notion that biological principles can be used to explain all human behavior.
Except for simple reflexes, there is hardly a human behavior that is not influenced socially. Social environment probably has a greater effect than heredity on the way we develop and the way we act.
Isolation and Nonhuman Primates: The Harlow Experiment
Harry and Margaret Harlow attempted to demonstrate the effects of social isolation on rhesus monkeys. They took infant monkeys from their mothers and isolated them in separate cages.
Each cage contained two “mother” substitutes: ◦ One made with wire and a feeding bottle ◦ One made of cloth with no feeding bottle
The infant monkeys instinctively clung to the cloth mother seeking warmth, affection and physical comfort. They only went to the wire monkey for feeding.
This shows the detrimental effects of isolation on nonhuman primates. Without social contact, the monkeys did not learn how to relate to other monkeys. Because humans rely more heavily on social learning than monkeys, the process of socialization is even more important for us.