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Object Recognition Computer Vision CSE399b Spring 2007, Jianbo Shi.

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Presentation on theme: "Object Recognition Computer Vision CSE399b Spring 2007, Jianbo Shi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Object Recognition Computer Vision CSE399b Spring 2007, Jianbo Shi

2 Human vision: recognition Slides taken from Bart Rypma

3 “ What & Where” Visual Pathways Established with electophysiology, lesion, neuropsychology and neuroimaging data

4 Monkey Lesion Data Two types of Delayed Response Task Monkeys trained to criterion on one of these tasks Then task was reversed After learning, either temporal or parietal lobe lesioned Landmark Discrimination Task Object Discrimination Task

5 Effects of Lesion on Landmark Task Unoperated monkeys show no impairment Temporal-lobe lesion monkeys show minimal impairment Parietal-lobe lesion monkeys show much impairment

6 Effects of Lesion on Object Task Temporal-lobe lesion monkeys show much impairment Parietal-lobe lesion monkeys show minimal impairment

7 Monkey Lesion Data Subsequent lesion work supports the “what- where” distinction Object discrimination: Ventral lesion deficits restricted to visual modality Posterior/Anterior Ventral Lobe distinction: –Posterior: Visual discrimination –Anterior: Visual memory

8 The What-Where Distinction: Human Neuroimaging Data indicate evidence for what-where distinction Object task: Same objects? Spatial Task” Same locations?

9 Human Neuropsychological Data Agnosia Term coined by Sigmund Freud From the Greek word for “lack of knowledge” The inability to recognize objects when using a given sense, even though that sense is basically intact (Nolte, 1999)

10 Agnosia Usually involves damage to the occipito-parietal pathway

11 Patient GS Sensory abilities intact Language normal Unable to name objects

12 Agnosia Two Types Apperceptive –Object recognition failure due to perceptual processing Associative –Perceptual processing intact but subject cannot use information to recognize objects

13 Agnosia Depends on the availability of the object representation to consciousness Apperceptive Associative

14 Apperceptive Agnosias (also known as visual space agnosias) refer to a condition in which a person fails to recognize objects due to a functional impairment of the occipito-temporal vision areas of the brain. Other elementary visual functions such as acuity, colour vision, and brightness discrimination are still intact. Apperceptive agnosics are unable to distinguish visual shapes and so have trouble recognizing, copying, or discriminating between different visual stimuli. When patients are able to identify objects, they do so based on inferences using colour, size, texture and/or reflective cues to piece it together. For example, in the image below, an apperceptive patient may not be able to distinguish a poker chip from a scrabble tile despite their clear difference in shape and surface features.

15 This would be problem for apperceptive agnosia patient: They also have trouble with object constancy by view changes Right hemisphere lesions

16 Associative Agnosias are also known as visual object agnosias. Although they can present with a variety of symptoms, the main impairment is failure to recognize visually presented objects despite having intact perception of that object. A patient with an associative agnosia may be able to replicate a drawing of the object but still fail to recognize it. Errors in misidentifying an object as one that looks similar are common. Three specific criteria are associated with a diagnosis of associative agnosia (Farah,1990): 1) Difficulty recognizing a variety of visually presented objects (e.g., naming or grouping objects together according to their semantic categories). 2) Normal recognition of objects from a verbal description of it or when using a sense other than vision such as touch, smell, or taste. 3) Elementary visual perception intact sufficient to copy an object, as exemplified in original and copied picture below. Overall, this loss can be thought of as "recognition without meaning".

17 Prosopagnosia Specific inability to recognize faces Are faces and other objects in the world represented in fundamentally different ways in memory? Does face-memory depend on fundamentally different brain systems?

18 Are Faces Special? Subjects presented with a face and asked to represent a face-part Subjects presented with a house and asked to represent a house-part

19 Are Faces Special? Houses represented in parts Faces represented as wholes

20 Are Faces Special? Objects represented in parts and holistically Faces represented holistically

21 Object Recognition, Computer Vision Three distinct Approaches: 1)Alignment, prototype, 2)Part-based classification, 3)Invariance, geometrical & photometrical, hashing

22 Hypothesis-Test: Alignment Method


24 Recognition by Hypothesize and Test General idea –Hypothesize object identity and pose –Render object in camera –Compare to image Issues –where do the hypotheses come from? –How do we compare to image (verification)?

25 Step 1: correspondence

26 What are the features? They have to project like points –Lines –Conics –Other fitted curves –Regions (particularly the center of a region, etc.)

27 Step 2: Shape deformation and matching

28 Pose consistency Strategy: –Generate hypotheses using small numbers of correspondences (e.g. triples of points for a calibrated perspective camera, etc., etc.) –Backproject and verify Appropriate groups are “frame groups”

29 Figure from “Object recognition using alignment,” D.P. Huttenlocher and S. Ullman, Proc. Int. Conf. Computer Vision, 1986, copyright IEEE, 1986

30 Models Body Recognition G. Mori, X. Ren, A. Efros, and J. Malik, Recovering Human Body Configurations: Combining Segmentation and Recognition, IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2004.



33 Example 1: View-point variations, many examples are needed Problem with Alignment algorithm: T. Sebastian

34 Example 2: Partial occlusion T. Sebastian

35 Part-based Object Recognition

36 Binford ‘78


38 Shocks (or medial axis or skeleton) are locus of centers of maximal circles that are bitangent to shape boundary Shape boundary Shocks Computing part-decomposition T. Sebastian

39 Complexity-increasing shape deformation paths are not optimal Represent a deformation path by a pair of simplifying deformation paths from A, B to a simpler shape C T. Sebastian

40 Shock graph edit operation transforms a shape to adjacent transition shape T. Sebastian

41 Edit-distance is defined as the sum of the cost of edits in optimal edit sequence T. Sebastian

42 Shock graphs represents object parts and part hierarchy Edit-distance is robust in presence of part-based changes T. Sebastian

43 Invariance + hashing

44 Figure from “Efficient model library access by projectively invariant indexing functions,” by C.A. Rothwell et al., Proc. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1992, copyright 1992, IEEE


46 Invariant Local Features Image content is transformed into local feature coordinates that are invariant to translation, rotation, scale, and other imaging parameters SIFT Features David Lowe




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