What adaptations make humans different from primates? Arm length Tool use Posture Spread of population Hip & leg structure How feet are used Humans and non-human primates are genetically similar however the main difference is how and WHEN genes are expressed!
The cranium protects the large brain, a distinguishing characteristic of this group. The endocranial volume (the volume within the skull) is three times greater in humans than in the greatest non-human primate, reflecting a larger brain size. endocranial
Primates as research models Advantages – humankind’s closest biological relatives – we share 98.4% of our DNA with chimpanzees – characteristics in common -- tool use, long-lasting social relationships, and complex communication – same organs (heart, lungs, brain etc.) and organ systems (respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous systems etc.) which perform the same functions in pretty much the same way
– expensive to purchase and maintain – reproductive rate is low (typically one offspring per reproductive cycle) and the developmental period of the young is long – special handling and management requirements, based on the temperament and potentially lethal zoonoses of primates zoonoses – ethical issues on the primates, especially chimpanzees, have limited their use – there is no perfect animal model regardless of how similar it is to humans Disadvantages
Did You Know... Nonhuman primates represent only about one third of one percent of animals used in biomedical research.
Special Considerations: Federal laws, the Animal Welfare Act and the Public Health Service Act, regulate the reduction and elimination of pain, as well as such aspects of animal care as caging, feeding, exercise of dogs and the psychological well-being of primates Each research institution must establish an animal care and use committee that includes an outside member of the public as well as a veterinarian
The scientific community advocates the highest quality of animal care and treatment for two key reasons. 1.The use of animals in research is a privilege. Animals are helping us unlock the mysteries of disease. They deserve our respect and the best possible care. 2.A well-treated animal will provide more reliable scientific results. This is the goal of all researchers.
Did You Know... Because gorillas and humans are so closely related, most diseases can be transmitted from humans to gorillas and vice versa. This is the reason for the glass enclosures at the National Zoo's Great Ape House. The glass prevents any exchange of disease between visitors and gorillas. In addition, infant gorillas receive the same inoculations as human babies. They also receive tetanus, and rabies inoculations throughout their lives.
WHAT HAS BEEN ACHIEVED WITH RESEARCH ON PRIMATES? Detailed Time Line or General Achievements Detailed Time Line General Achievements
Major Medical Advances Aided by Research with Nonhuman Primates Early 1900s Components of blood and plasma discovered. Treatment of pellagra.pellagra 1920s Ability to diagnose and treat typhoid fever. 1930s Modern anesthesia and neuromuscular blocking agents. Mumps virus discovered.
1940s -Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. -Discovery of the Rh factor, blood-typing knowledge critical for safe blood transfusions. 1950s -Development of polio vaccine. -Chlorpromazine and its tranquilizing derivatives.Chlorpromazine -Cancer chemotherapy. -Development of yellow fever vaccine. 1960s -Mapping of the heart's connections to arteries. -Development of German measles vaccine. -Therapeutic use of cortisone. -Corneal transplants.
1970s -Treatment of leprosy. -Procedures to restore blood supply in the brain. -Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material. -Understanding of slow viruses, which linger in the nervous system. -Discovery that alcohol is toxic to the liver. 1980s -Development of cyclosporine and anti-rejection drugs. -Processing of visual information by the brain. -Identification of psychophysiological co-factors in depression, anxiety and phobias.psychophysiological -Treatment of malnutrition caused by food aversion following chemotherapy.aversion -Treatment of congenital cataracts and "lazy eye" in children.
-First animal model for research on Parkinson's disease, enabling doctors to more accurately research human Parkinson's disease. -Heart and lung transplant to treat cardiopulmonary hypertension. -First Hepatitis B vaccine. -Rhesus monkey model for AIDS used to establish the effectiveness of early administration of AZT in cases of diagnosed infection. -Addition of taurine to infant formulas. An amino acid in breast milk, taurine is necessary for normal retinal development. 1990s -Estrogen discovered to control an enzyme key to making serotonin, the brain chemical that regulates mood. -Lead toxicity studies help U.S. fight childhood lead exposure.
-Ongoing development of a one-dose transplant drug to prevent organ rejection. -First controlled study to reveal that even moderate levels of alcohol are dangerous in pregnancy. -Breakthroughs in understanding the mechanisms of puberty and disorders of puberty. -Primate embryonic stem cells studied extensively for the first time, advancing efforts to better understand reproduction and genetic disorders. -The drug Ecstasy causes long-term brain damage long after the high has worn off. -Parent to child lung transplants for cystic fibrosis. -Monkey model developed for curing diabetes.
-Naturally regenerative mechanism discovered in the mature primate brain, spurring new research toward curing Alzheimer's, other degenerative brain disorders. -Wild primate species help characterize emerging infectious diseases. -Rhesus and cynomolgus monkey kidneys developed for use in diagnosing influenza. -Development of anthrax vaccine 2000s -Gene that boosts dopamine production and strengthens brain cells used to successfully treat monkeys showing symptoms of Parkinson's Disease, a neurodegenerative disorder. -Monkey model developed to study the effects of malaria in pregnant women and their offspring.
-Rhesus monkeys are now prime model for development of HIV treatments and potential vaccines. There are 14 licensed anti-viral drugs for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection alone. -Human embryonic stem cell work based on research in monkeys makes dramatic advances. (Sources: United States Surgical Corps, Centers for Disease Control, San Francisco Bee, Massachusetts Society for Medical Research, Inc., Ross Labs, National Center for Research Resources National Primate Research Centers Program, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Children with Diabetes, Time Magazine, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Associated Press, PubMed.) Return to Presentation
Many significant advances in modern medicine have been based on research involving primates, including the following: polio vaccines, which have virtually eliminated the disease in the USA and Europe since the 1950s life-support systems for premature babies kidney dialysis anti-rejection drugs for organ transplant recipients deep brain stimulation to suppress the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease surgical treatment for macular degeneration –an incurable eye disease that is the primary cause of blindness in older people
new techniques in stroke rehabilitation therapy drugs to combat asthma cancer chemotherapy primate embryonic stem cells studied extensively, advancing efforts to better understand reproduction and genetic disorders dietary restriction without malnutrition provides major health benefits and may extend maximum lifespan Rhesus monkeys are now prime model for development of HIV treatments and potential vaccines. There are 14 licensed anti- viral drugs for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection alone
Natural Habitat tropical or subtropical regions of the Americas, Africa and Asia most non-human primates do not shape their environment, they use it as it is without modification Forage, or search for, food and water the majority of primate species are primarily or exclusively vegetarian some non-human primates use very simple tools to help in acquiring food and water live in groups which have a constant close association of young and old through a long life duration
Laboratory Habitat Attempt to create conditions that allow nonhuman primates to behave as they would in their natural habitat. Well cared for research animals = better science Scientists use Environmental Enrichment and Behavior Management to ensure to the well-being of the nonhuman primates There are strict laws and policies that scientist must follow Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide
Swings Toys Mirrors Perches Group or pair housing Positive reinforcement training You can view a movie You can view a movie of a rhesus macaque at the Southwest National Primate Research Center.
Careers in Primatology Primatologists can be: – university professors – biomedical researchers – zookeepers – veterinarians – newsletter editors – conservationists They can work in: – conservation agencies – primate centers or laboratories – corporate or institutional positions – government organizations – educational programs – sanctuaries – zoological gardens – museums