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ADVANCED BIOLOGICL PSYCHOLOGY I. The Burden of being Burden-Free A. Like a psychopath? B. What psychologically stresses you? C. What personality type (or types are burden-free? D. Happy stress-free repressives II. The Trouble with Testosterone B. Correlation study D. Correlation versus causation: the case of Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher C. Subtraction –replacement experiment A. Subtraction experiment

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Sapolsky, R.M. (1997). The trouble with testosterone. New York: Scribner. The Trouble with Testosterone 1) Subtraction experiment 2) Correlation study Conclusion: Testosterone causes aggression Wrong!

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Sapolsky, R.M. (1997). The trouble with testosterone. New York: Scribner. The Trouble with Testosterone There are three possibilities to the correlation study: a) testosterone elevates aggression b) aggression elevates testosterone secretion c) neither causes the other Answer:

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Sapolsky, R.M. (1997). The trouble with testosterone. New York: Scribner. The Trouble with Testosterone There are three possibilities to the correlation study: a) testosterone elevates aggression b) aggression elevates testosterone secretion c) neither causes the other Answer: B

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Sapolsky, R.M. (1997). The trouble with testosterone. New York: Scribner. The Trouble with Testosterone 3) Do another subtraction-replacement study Exp. 1) replace 20% of the normal level of testosterone Exp. 2) replace twice the normal level of testosterone What happens:

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Sapolsky, R.M. (1997). The trouble with testosterone. New York: Scribner. The Trouble with Testosterone Results: In both experiments there is a return of aggression to the normal level (i.e. no difference between the two experiments). Conclusion: Testosterone has a “permissive effect”

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Sapolsky, R.M. (1997). The trouble with testosterone. New York: Scribner. The Trouble with Testosterone 4) Last experiment: House 5 monkeys together and give them plenty of time to form a dominance hierarchy (monkey number 1 being dominant). Next give monkey number 3 a ton of testosterone and measure his aggression. What happens:

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Sapolsky, R.M. (1997). The trouble with testosterone. New York: Scribner. The Trouble with Testosterone Result: Monkey number 3 increases aggression, but only to monkeys 4 and 5. Conclusion: testosterone doesn’t increase aggression indiscriminately, it only exaggerates the aggression that’s already there.

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Neural Substrates of Aggression Amygdala Hypothalamus Stria terminalis

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Neural Substrates of Aggression Amygdala Hypothalamus Stria terminalis not activated Flooding the area with testosterone has no effect

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Neural Substrates of Aggression Amygdala Hypothalamus Stria terminalis activated Testosterone increases the rate of signaling

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Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962)

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1) Integrated Mendelian genetics with Darwinian natural selection. 2) Invented a technique called the analysis of variance. Fisher’s two major accomplishments: It has been said that he was the “Babe Ruth of evolutionary theory and statistics” Gould, S.J. (1991). The smoking gun of eugenics. Natural History, 100, 8-17.

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However, Even the Babe struck out

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