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© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Monkey Business: Evolution of Primates
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Early Primates Arboreal theory Primates became primates by adapting to life in trees Enhanced sight (depth perception) Grasping hands and feet Visual predation hypothesis Binocular vision, grasping hands and feet, and reduced claws developed because they facilitated the capture of insects. Early primates first adapted to life in the bushy forest undergrowth and low tree branches.
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Early Cenozoic Primates The earliest primates date to the first part of the Cenozoic (65-54 million years ago.). The Eocene (54-38 million years ago) was the epoch of prosimians with at least 60 different genera in two families. The omomyid family lived in North America, Europe, and Asia and may be ancestral to all anthropoids. The adapid family was ancestral to the lemur-loris line.
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Prosimians: “lower primates” Lemurs, loris, bushbabies, tarsiers Anthropoids: “higher primates” New World Monkeys: marmosets, tamarins, spider monkeys Old World Monkeys: baboons, macaques, mandrills Homonoids: Gibbons, Pongids (Apes) and Hominids (Humans and related forms).
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Prosimians tarsier lemur
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill New World Monkeys
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Old World Monkeys
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Hominoids Lesser Apes (Gibbons) Panids, Pongids(Great Apes) (Gorilla, Chimps, Orangutan) Dumb Apes (George Bush)
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Continents at the end of the Mesozoic Here is the placement of the continents at the end of the Cenozoic and beginning of the Mesozoic, about 65 million years ago.
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Omomyid An artist’s reconstruction of Shoshonius, a member of the Eocene omomyid family.
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Anthropoids Anthropoids branched off from the prosimians during the Eocene. Anthropoid eyes are rotated more forward compared to prosimians. Anthropoids have a fully enclosed bony eye socket. Anthropoids have a dry nose separate from the upper lip. Anthropoids have molar cusps.
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Oligocene Anthropoids During the Oligocene (38-23 million years ago), anthropoids were the most numerous primates. The parapithecid family may be ancestral to monkeys and “apes” (e.g. Aegyptopithecus)
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Proconsul A Miocene Hominoid: Proconsul was the most abundant anthropoid in the early Miocene. Its teeth have similarities with modern apes, but below the neck the skeleton is more monkey-like. Their teeth suggest that they ate fruits and leaves. Proconsul - common ancestor shared by Old World monkeys and the apes.
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Proconsul A skull of Proconsul africanus from the Kenya National Museum.
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Proconsul Proconsul was replaced by monkeys in the late Miocene. Monkeys probably were superior at eating leaves. Monkey molars developed lophs which enhanced their ability to chew leaves. Traits Primitive traits are those passed on unchanged from an ancestor. Derived traits are those that develop in a particular taxon after a split from a common ancestor.
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Afropithecus and Kenyapithecus Afropithecus is a large slow moving Miocene hominoid with large projecting front teeth from northern Kenya (18-16 million years ago) Equatorius - Afropithecus group- stem hominoids ?
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Sivapithecus Sivapithecus belongs to the ramapithecid genera along with Gigantopithecus. Sivapithecus is now believed to be ancestral to the modern orangutan. A Sivapithecus skull.
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Gigantopithecus Gigantopithecus is the largest primate that ever lived, some standing over 10 feet tall and weighing 1,200 pounds. Since it died out around 400,000 years ago, it coexisted with Homo erectus. Some people believe it is still alive today as the yeti and bigfoot. A reconstruction of Giganopithecus by Russel Ciochon and Bill Muns.
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Dryopithecus Dryopithecus lived in Europe during the middle and late Miocene. This group probably includes the common ancestor of the lesser apes (gibbons and siamangs) and the great apes. Dryopithecus has the Y-5 arrangement of molar cusps typical of Dryopithecus and of hominoids.
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill A Missing Link? The last ancestral population held commonly by humans, gorillas, and chimpanzees is known as Hogopans (after the genus names of these three). The lines of the orangutans, gibbons and siamangs having split off several million years earlier, the hominid line almost certainly diverged from those of chimps and gorillas late in the Miocene epoch, between 7 and 5 million years ago. Hogopans probably split into the three separate lines leading to gorillas, chimpanzees and humans no more than 8 million years ago., with each group moving into separate niches: equatorial forest-dwelling and eating bulk vegetation (gorilla), Central African woodland-dwelling frugivores (chimpanzee), and open grassland (hominids).
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill …which leads us to attemping to reconstruct our own family tree: a dog’s breakfast
© 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill END OF LECTURE
1 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. O v e r v i e w Primate Evolution This chapter introduces students to the study of the fossil record.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1.
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1 7 Primate Evolution Anthropology: The Exploration of Human Diversity 11 th Edition Conrad Phillip.
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© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved. Chapter Twelve The Early Primate Fossil Record and the Origins of the Hominins.
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Primates and Human Origins
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2 Divisions of Primates 1. Anthropoid primates 2. Prosimean primates Characteristics: Nails (no claws) Prehensile hands and feet (grasping)
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Chapter 7: New & Old World Primates. Prosimians (before apes) More primitive features as compared to monkeys –Many are nocturnal –Some have claws –Locomotion.
Primate and Human Evolution Chapter 19. What Are Primates? Primate order: Arboreal ancestors. Trends in primate evolution: –Changes in skeletons. –Change.
Primate Adaptation and Evolution Taxonomic order of mammals that includes prosimians (lemurs), monkeys, apes, and humans. Estimated species. Primates.
McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CONRAD PHILLIP KOTTAK CHAPTER 4 The Primates This chapter introduces students to the.
PRIMATE EVOLUTION Take out a sheet of paper and put your name and your lab partners name on it. Question 1 – How would you and your lab partner scientifically.
Chapter 6 Macroevolution and the Early Primates. Chapter Preview What Is Macroevolution? When and Where Did the First Primates Appear, and What Were They.
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