Presentation on theme: "Pox? Objectives Hypothesis"— Presentation transcript:
1 Pox? Objectives Hypothesis To find out about Small Pox, Monkey Pox, Cow Pox and Chicken Pox.HypothesisThe vaccination methods for the pox family (small pox, cow pox, monkey pox, chicken pox) are related.
2 SmallpoxFACTSSmallpox first appeared in China and the Far East at least 2000 years ago. The Pharaoh Ramses V died of smallpox in 1157 B.C.Smallpox killed five reigning European monarchs during the 18th century.Smallpox has now been eradicated. The last naturally occurring outbreak was in Somalia on 26th October 1977.
3 Information Smallpox Transmission Smallpox is a serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease. There is no specific treatment for smallpox disease, and the only prevention is vaccination. The name smallpox is derived from the Latin word for "spotted" and refers to the raised bumps that appear on the face and body of an infected person.TransmissionGenerally, direct and fairly prolonged face-to-face contact is required to spread smallpox from one person to another. Smallpox also can be spread through direct contact with infected bodily fluids or contaminated objects such as bedding or clothing. Rarely, smallpox has been spread by virus carried in the air in enclosed settings such as buildings, buses, and trains. Humans are the only natural hosts of variola. Smallpox is not known to be transmitted by insects or animals.
4 VaccinationSmallpoxThe smallpox vaccine helps the body develop immunity to smallpox. The vaccine is made from a virus called vaccinia which is a “pox”-type virus related to smallpox. The smallpox vaccine contains the “live” vaccinia virus—not dead virus like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent the virus from spreading. Also, the vaccine can have side effects, like The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine was given.The glands in the armpits may become large and sore.The vaccinated person may run a low fever.One out of 3 people may feel bad enough to miss work, school, or recreational activity or have trouble sleeping The vaccine does not contain the smallpox virus and cannot give you Smallpox.CDC = centres for diseaseVirus= Any of various simple submicroscopic parasites of plants, animals, and bacteria that often cause disease and that consist essentially of a core of RNA or DNA surrounded by a protein coat. Unable to replicate without a host cell, viruses are typically not considered living organisms.Vaccination= Inoculation with a vaccine in order to protect against a particular disease.
5 Chicken pox...(intro)In these slides I will explain about ‘chicken pox’ (also known as ‘varicella-zoster’) and tell of its effects and different methods on how to cure it.Chickenpox is a common disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which is part of the herpes virus family. Although many people associate the word herpes with genital herpes, the herpes virus family is made up of nearly 100 kinds of viruses, eight of which cause disease in humans. Examples of different herpes viruses are herpes simplex virus (which causes cold sores and genital herpes infections), Epstein-Barr virus (which causes infectious mononucleosis), and varicella-zoster virus (which causes chickenpox and shingles). Varicella-zoster virus spreads in the air through coughs or sneezes or through contact with fluid from inside the chickenpox blisters.
6 Effects of C.PWell, Chicken pox is one of the last childhood diseases that is not widely immunized against. Very few children will escape getting this virus unless immunization becomes more popular. If your child gets the chicken pox there are many things that you can do to make them more comfortable. This article will go over how the disease is spread, the symptoms, the specifics of quarantine and what a parent can do to make the case lighter and not develop into the dangerous complications that can occur. “Very few children will escape getting this virus unless immunization becomes more popular.”A definition of a virus: any of various simple submicroscopic parasites of plants, animals, and bacteria that often cause disease and that consist essentially of a core of RNA or DNA surrounded by a protein coat. Unable to replicate without a host cell, viruses are typically not considered living organisms.
7 Vaccination for chicken pox The way that a person can get chicken pox is from another person when they cough or sneeze, or if they come in contact with the fluid in the blisters. Most people who get chicken pox vaccination don’t get the disease again……BUT the people who do get it again don’t have anything to worry about as it is very mild: e.t.c less spots and they recover quicker.
8 What you should know about... Monkey PoxWhat is monkey pox? Monkey pox is a rare viral disease that occurs mostly in central and western Africa. It is called “monkey pox” because it was first found in 1958 in laboratory monkeys. Blood tests of animals in Africa later found that other types of animals probably had monkey pox. Scientists also recovered the virus that causes monkey pox from an African squirrel. These types of squirrels might be the common host for the disease. Rats, mice, and rabbits can get monkey pox, too. Monkey pox was reported in humans for the first time in 1970.Is there monkey pox in the United States? In early June 2003, monkey pox was reported among several people in the United States. Most of these people got sick after having contact with pet prairie dogs that were sick with monkey pox. This is the first time that there has been an outbreak of monkey pox in the United States.What causes monkey pox? The disease is caused by Monkey pox virus. It belongs to a group of viruses that includes the smallpox virus (variola), the virus used in the smallpox vaccine (vaccinia), and the cowpox virus.
9 What you should know about... Monkey PoxWhat are the signs and symptoms of monkey pox? In humans, the signs and symptoms of monkey pox are like those of smallpox, but usually they are milder. Another difference is that monkey pox causes the lymph nodes to swell.About 12 days after people are infected with the virus, they will get a fever, headache, muscle aches, and backache; their lymph nodes will swell; and they will feel tired. One to 3 days (or longer) after the fever starts, they will get a rash. This rash develops into raised bumps filled with fluid and often starts on the face and spreads, but it can start on other parts of the body too. The bumps go through several stages before they get crusty, scab over, and fall off. The illness usually lasts for 2 to 4 weeks.Can you die from monkey pox? In Africa, monkey pox has killed between 1 percent and 10 percent of people who get it. However, this risk would probably be lower in the United States, where nutrition and access to medical care are better.
10 Vaccination and Contamination Monkey PoxHow do you catch monkey pox? People can get monkey pox from an animal with monkey pox if they are bitten or if they touch the animal’s blood, body fluids, or its rash. The disease also can spread from person to person through large respiratory droplets during long periods of face-to-face contact or by touching body fluids of a sick person or objects such as bedding or clothing contaminated with the virus.How do you treat monkey pox? There is no specific treatment for monkey pox. In Africa, people who got the smallpox vaccine in the past had a lower risk of monkey pox. CDC has sent out guidelines explaining when smallpox vaccine should be used to protect against monkey pox. For example, people taking care of someone infected with monkey pox should think about getting vaccinated. Contact your state or local health department for more information.
11 Cow PoxWhat is Cowpox?Cowpox is a contagious viral disease of cows and is a mild form of smallpox. It has been around for hundreds of years. There are many hosts of the disease including voles and wood mice even spreading to cats. The last recorded case of a cow with cowpox in the UK was in There are about 1-4 cases in man per year.How do you catch Cowpox?As the disease progresses the cows develop pustular eruptions, particularly on the udders and teats. People can catch cowpox by direct contact with an infected animal. People infected with cowpox are immune to smallpox which is a much more serious disease. People can catch cowpox by direct contact with an infected animal and they then go on to develop pustules, on their hands.
12 Effects and Investigation Cow PoxEffects of Cowpox.These are quite painful and there is a general feeling of being unwell. The incubation period is about 1 week and the illness lasts about 4-6 weeks. There is a full recovery.Investigation on Cowpox.It had always been noticed in rural communities that dairy maids who caught cowpox would never get smallpox- they were immune. This was investigated by Edward Jenner in 1796 and the vaccine for smallpox produced. This effectively wiped out smallpox which was a major killer at the time.
13 VaccinationCow PoxThe vaccine for small pox was the first vaccine ever developed. In fact, the term "vaccine" comes from the Latin word for cow, vaccinus, since the original small pox vaccine was made using the cow pox virus.Prior to the development of the small pox vaccine, at least two other forms of inoculation were used to try to protect people against the deadly disease. For centuries in China, the virus was inoculated into the nose, while in the Middle East there was the practice of variolation, in which the virus was inoculated into the skin.In 1721, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, the wife of the British ambassador to Turkey, learned about variolation in Turkey and had her children variolated, thus introducing the practice to England. Variolation was then adopted by Princess Caroline two years later, which resulted in its widespread acceptance.In 1796, the world's first vaccination was performed when an English country doctor named Edward Jenner inoculated James Phipps, an eight year old boy, with cow pox virus. Jenner had observed that, although small pox was a widespread disease, milkmaids never seemed to get the disease. This was because they had been infected by cow pox from the cows they worked with, and this virus was similar enough to small pox to protect against it. A month and a half after inoculating Phipps, Jenner tested the effectiveness of his vaccine by injecting the boy with live small pox virus. Phipps was completely protected and did not show any symptoms. In 1798, Jenner published an article called "An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae," reporting the efficacy of his new treatment.
14 Answering the hypothesis Well, for monkey pox there is no current vaccine available unless, you count: using small pox as a preventative.The chicken pox vaccine available only as a single-antigen formula which, after 1 dose, makes you develop antibody titers Vaccine-induced immunity is believed to be long lasting. Vaccine efficacy is estimated to be 70%–90% against VZV infection and 95% against severe disease. Among healthy adolescents and adults, an average of 78% develop antibody after one dose and 99% develop antibody after a second dose given 4–8 weeks later.Small pox has a vaccine which is used to immunize against it. It is linked to cow pox as it is needed for the preventation of cow pox.lastly, the cow pox vaccine, which is basically small pox used as a stronger disease to cure and prevent cow pox.
15 MethodThe method would be to, first know about the vaccinations for the pox family which are already explained. Then to decide whether the curing ways are different of the same…This would be done by analysing the information.So far we have found out that cow pox and small pox are related and that monkey has no vaccination, as for chicken pox, in the U.K there is no vaccination used because it is considered dangerous for children under 15 and as most of the victims of this disease are children it is the right choice.What we have found out is that these diseases are both linked and that to cure them is a difficult and dangerous task.