Presentation on theme: "Monkey Journey to the West By Wu Che'eng- En (kind’a)"— Presentation transcript:
Monkey Journey to the West By Wu Che'eng- En (kind’a)
Photograph of painting depicting a scene from the Chinese classic Journey to the West. The painting shows the four heroes of the story, left to right: Sun Wukong, Xuanzang, Zhu Wuneng, and Sha Wujing. The painting is a decoration on the Long Corridor in the Summer Palace in Beijing, China. The photograph was taken by Rolf Müller on April 17, WikiWiki
Not originally by Wu Ch-Eng-en The novel or prose romance Monkey (properly, "Journey to the West," Hsi-yu chi) was not the work of a single person. First published in 1592, it represents a cumulative retelling and elaboration of materials that evolved over many centuries. Yet the final form of these stories in a vast, sprawling novel of one hundred chapters, often attributed to Wu Ch'eng-en, transformed the traditional material into a work of genius.
For over three centuries most of China remained unaware of its authorship, although the people of his hometown attributed the novel to him early on. Several scholars' textual analysis and research of Qing Dynasty records suggests that he may have been the author, and a 1625 gazetteer from Wu's hometown claims him as the author. A page from the earliest known edition of Journey to the West, in woodblock print.
An early illustrated edition of Journey to the West
Only a Part of this Huge Work Is Included Our text is from an abridged version of thirty chapters out of the original one hundred, but Waley's gifts as a translator and the nature of his abridgement make this version a delight to read. In addition to Waley's abridgement, there is a complete and accurate four- volume translation of the novel by Anthony Yu, Journey to the West (1977—83), with a long introduction.
What is it? It has long been debated whether Monkey is a work of exuberant play, celebrating Monkey's free spirit and turbulent ingenuity, or a serious allegory of Monkey and Tripitaka's journey toward Buddhist enlightenment. The novel is certainly something of both. An argument can be made, from a Buddhist point of view, that Tripitaka, however inept and timorous, is the novel's true hero.
But for most readers, Chinese and Western, Monkey's splendid vitality and boundless humor remain the center of interest. Monkey's guardianship over Tripitaka is seconded by the ever-hungry and lustful Pigsy, who becomes increasingly unsympathetic as the journey progresses. Tripitaka's third disciple and protector is the gentle dragon Sandy, a former marshal of the hosts of Heaven who was sent to the bottom of a river to expiate the sin of having broken the Jade Emperor's (a Taoist divinity) crystal cup.
Setting Above the four travelers is a divine machinery built of a synthesis of benign boddhisattvas (potential buddhas who linger in this world to help suffering humanity) and a Taoist pantheon of unruly and sometimes dangerous deities.
On the earthly plane the pilgrims move through a landscape of strange kingdoms and monsters, stopping sometimes to help those in need or to protect themselves from harm. Some of the earthly monsters belong to the places where the pilgrims find them, but many of the demons and temptresses that the travelers encounter either are exiles and escapees from the heavenly realm or are sent on purpose to test the pilgrims.
Tripitaka Surrounded by three guardian disciples whose characters at the very least verge on the allegorical, Tripitaka is not only human but all too human. He is easily frightened, sometimes petulant, and never knows what to do. He is not so much driven on the pilgrimage by determined resolve as merely carried along by it. Monkey Project TV Series
Yet he alone is the character destined for full buddhahood at the end, and his apparent lack of concern for the quest and for his disciples has been interpreted as the true manifestation of Buddhist detachment. Although Monkey grows increasingly devoted to his master through the course of the novel, Tripitaka never fully trusts him, however much he depends on him; and if there is a difficult Buddhist lesson in the novel, it is to grasp how Tripitaka, the ordinary man as saint, can be the novel's true hero. He is the empty center of the group, kept alive and carried forward by his more powerful and active disciples. The pilgrimage would not exist except for him.
Monkey Both Monkey and later Pigsy are creatures of desire, though the nature of their desires differs greatly. Monkey, who had once lived an idyllic life with his monkey subjects in Water Curtain Cave, is, in the novel's early chapters, driven by a hunger for knowledge and immortality to search through the earth and the heavens.
In the first stage of his existence, Monkey's hunger of the mind is never perfectly directed; it is a turbulence of spirit that always leads to mischief and an urge to create chaos. He acquires skills and magic tools that make him more powerful, but since he uses them unwisely, they only lead him to ever more outrageous escapades...at last Monkey is given a chance to redeem himself by guarding Tripitaka on his pilgrimage to India.
During the course of the pilgrimage, Monkey becomes increasingly bound both to his master and to the quest itself, without ever losing his energy and humor. Despite occasional outbursts of his former mischief making, the quest becomes for Monkey a structured series of challenges by which he can focus and discipline his rambunctious intellect. The journey is driven forward by Monkey alone, with Tripitaka ever willing to give up in despair and Pigsy always ready to be seduced or return to his wife.
Monkey understands the world with a comic detachment that is in some ways akin to Buddhist detachment, and this detachment makes him always more resourceful and often wiser than Tripitaka. Yet in his fierce energy and sheer joy in the use of his mind, Monkey falls short of the Buddhist ideal of true tranquility, while remaining the hero for unenlightened mortals.
Chapter One The Beginnings of Monkey The indulgence of the Jade King How Monkey Discovered the Stone City and Becomes the “Handsome Monkey King” –, "Gentlemen! 'With one whose word cannot be trusted there is nothing to be done!‘ Confucius's Analects Rules for several hundred years Yama the King of Death Only three exceptions: – Buddhas (Buddhism), Immortals (Taoism), and Sages (Confucianism)
On a raft he travels to the borders of the Southern World...to the northwestern bank, which is indeed the frontier of the Southern World. – Acts like a Monkey – Learns about clothing – Learns how humans can live for nothing but money and gain. Monkey floated on over the Western Ocean till he came to the Western Continent, where he went ashore, and when he had looked about for some time, he suddenly saw a very high and beautiful mountain
I hatch no plot, I scheme no scheme; Fame and shame are one to me, A simple life prolongs my days. Those I meet upon my way Are Immortals, one and all, Who from their quiet seats expound The Scriptures of the Yellow Court.
"We shall have to see about giving you a school-name," said the Patriarch. "We have twelve words that we use in these names, according to the grade of the pupil. You are in the tenth grade." They are... Wide, Big, Wise, Clever, True, Conforming, Nature, Ocean, Lively, Aware, Perfect and Illumined. Aware must come in your name. How about A ware-of-Vacuity ?" "Splendid!" said Monkey, laughing. "From now onwards let me be called Aware- of-Vacuity.“ So that was his name in religion. And if you do not know whether in the end, equipped with this name, he managed to obtain enlightenment or not, listen while it is explained to you in the next chapter.
Chapters II-XIII (And Beyound) Monkey’s acquisition of magical powers His disruption of Heaven and impresonment. Tripika’s commission from the T’ang emperor to go to India in search of scriptures. After many adventures they do evetually get to India and in the last chapters they are magically whisked back to China and rewarded for their hard work. Pigsey, over his loud objections, becoms the hanitor of the alters.
Chapter XIV 500 Years later! Tripitaka has his mission and he and a hunter find the stone casket with (the stone) Monkey sealed in. The attack of the Tiger The visit with the old man (confirms Monkey’s age) The attack of the (stupid) thieves “The Great Sage Equal of Heaven." Notice how often Monkey is addressed as “Dear Monkey.”
Monkey is rebuked for killing those ruffians. runs off in a huff. The Bodhisattva The Dragon King of the East – gets a cup of tea and a good talking to. Holy Man tricks the trickster – the coat and cap (when a spell is said the cup squeezes the head). “I’ll go and teach the Bodhisattva a lesson!” “But might she not be able to do worse since she was the one who gave me this cap?” “Ummm, good point.”
Chapter XV Eagle Grief Stream Monkey and Tripitaka attacked by the dragon who eats their horse. Petulant Tripitaka – now what will I do without the horse? (Never mind that Monkey just saved his life!) Dragon has a past having barely escaped Heavenly judgment. “Om!” summons the local deities. “Come on out so I can beat you and relieve my fury!” We had no idea that you were free.
Son of the Dragon King of the Western Ocean They need an extraordinary mount to get to India Monkey is fonder of his own powers than mentioning his connection with the higher task. The gift of hairs
Chapter XVI Pigsey and Monkey Old Mr. Kao’s Farm Unfair to Pigsey although he has made a real nuisance of himself.
Who is the hero of Into the West? Is the hero of Into the West? The original story favored Tripitaka who eventually succeeds in completing the task of bringing the scriptures from India. Moderns (and many contemporizes) prefer Monkey who is alive and active (and also very funny), who begins a journey like Gilgamesh to deal with the ancient question of what to do with the coming of death? Some have seen Tripitaka, Monkey, Sandy, and Pigsy as all combining into the hero of the story, representing in metaphor the nature of any individual seeking true enlightenment. Final Points