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PRIMATE Husbandry and Nutrition By: Monica Morgado

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1 PRIMATE Husbandry and Nutrition By: Monica Morgado

2 Conservation Status Total # of Species  254 107 Endangered 102 Lower Risk 8 Critically Endangered 6 Not enough data 4 Threatened 3 Rare

3 Taxonomy of Extant Primates Kingdom = Animalia Phylum = Chordata Class = Mammalia Order = Primates Prosimians *6 F Tarsiers *1 F New World Primates *2 F Old World Primates *1 F *2 SF OWP Lesser Apes *1 F OWP Great Apes *2 F

4 Prosimians and Tarsiers

5 Most primitive of the primates They’re NOT monkeys nor apes Nocturnal and sensitive Socialized and tropical Most are endangered

6 Where can Prosimians and Tarsiers be found?

7 New World Primates

8 New World Primates (Monkeys)

9 New World Primates Family Callithricidae  Smaller tamarins and marmosets Family Cebidae  Sakis  Spider and Woolly  Owl  Capuchin  Howler  Titi and Squirrel  Uakaris

10 New World Primates Live in the neotropical forests  Central and South America. Range vastly in size  6 inch pygmy marmoset  3 feet howler monkey Long tails (sometimes prehensile) No buttock pads No cheek pouches

11 Old World Primates (OWP)

12 Old World Primates (Monkeys)

13 Old World Primates Family Cercopithecidae  Subfamily cercopithecinae Macaques Baboons Mandrills Vervet monkeys Patas monkeys  Subfamily Colobinae Colobus monkeys Langurs Leaf monkeys

14 Old World Primates Live in Africa and Asia. Larger than the New World monkeys. They are diurnal. Longer hind legs than forearms. Prominent buttock pads that they can sit on. Tails, but not prehensile.

15 OWP-Great Apes

16 They have no tails. The face is almost naked. Live in complex social groups. The arms are longer than the legs. Rely mostly on vision and hearing rather than smell. Orangutans Chimpanzees GorillasHumansBonobos

17 OWP- Lesser Apes

18 Smaller and more slender forms No tail Gibbons live in pairs for life. Siamangs are the largest type of gibbon.


20 Nonhuman Primates as Pets Most common Pet-Primate species:  Squirrel monkey  Capuchin or “organ grinder” monkeys  Spider monkeys  Marmosets  Baboons  Chimpanzees  Orangutans

21 Nonhuman Primates as Pets Most Common Reasons People Buy Pet Monkeys:  "They're so cute!!"  "I wanted an unusual pet.“  "They're so adorable dressed up like people!“  Child substitute /

22 Require Permit Partial Ban Must Be Banded No Requirements Ban

23 Before getting a Nonhuman Pet Primate you must… Make sure your primate has been bred in the U.S. and not imported.  Center for Disease Control of the United States Public Health Service Regulation in 1976 Realize that monkeys are complex social/emotional animals  "high-care/high-need", "difficult" pets

24 Before getting a Nonhuman Pet Primate you must… Know that they are  Virtually impossible to toilet train  Can be destructive of property  Have a high propensity for biting  As they mature, their behavior becomes less predictable

25 Nonhuman Primate vs. Newborn Child

26 Nonhuman Primate vs. 2yr Old Child

27 Nonhuman Primate vs. 5yr Old Child

28 Nonhuman Primate vs. 15yr Old Kid

29 Before getting a Nonhuman Pet Primate you must… Know that they can have different relationships with members of a family:  liking the most dominant adult  picking on weakest or youngest family member Monkeys have a life-span of 20-40 years.

30 Health Concern: Common Diseases Nonhuman primates have a high potential for carrying zoonotic diseases:  Hepatitis  Tuberculosis Owners should test their pets at least once a year. Owners should be tested once a year.  Shigellosis  Salmonellosis  Herpes viruses

31 Herpes Simplex Viruses Herpesvirus simiae (Herpes “B”)  Host: Macaques  Rhesus monkeys may develop ulcerations in the oral mucosa.

32 Herpes Simplex Viruses Herpesvirus tamarinus (Herpes “T”)  1ry Host: Squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys Asymptomatic  Tamarins, marmosets, owl monkeys, and titi monkeys Clinical disease  May develop ulceration in lips, oral mucosa and conjunctiva.

33 Herpesvirus tamarinus Ulcerative dermatitis in a titi monkey

34 The Ideal Caretaker (patience….etc.) Patience Commitment Do not over estimate their force for their size.

35 Primate Housing Have the proper sized housing setups from day one. Should allow large motor exercise, running and leaping.

36 Primate Housing Cages for display are not usually large enough. Cage must be setup with easy, hands-off cleaning in mind.

37 Primate Housing Not recommended:  Kennel crates  Cat cages  Bird cages

38 Primate Housing Primates of different species should not be housed together.  Prevent disease transmission  Species-specific behaviors  Interspecies aggression.

39 Primate Housing A collar or harness should be worn continuously around the house. Nonhuman primates should be caged while unattended. Do not allow them to run loose in the home.

40 Cage Accessories Durable and easy-to- clean materials. Special housing needs depending on the primate:  Arboreal  Nocturnal  Ranging

41 Cage Accessories Lighting and climate controls should be on automatic.  18-17 ْْ C (65-80 ْ F)  55-70% Humidity Marmosets 70-80%

42 Acrylic mirror Foraging for fallen treats Treats out of the cones “pylon surprises” Mop heads strung with pasta and treats knotted on the ends Toys and enrichment devices

43 Disinfectants Cleaning cases, dishes, and toys  Roccal-D Winthrop, New York, NY  One-Stroke Environ Ceva Laboratories, Overland Park, KS

44 Nutrition for Old World and New World Primates Nutritional deficiencies:  Owner’s lack of knowledge  Common protein deficiencies high level of fruits and starches  Many owners feed table foods an not commercial biscuits or canned diets.

45 Vitamin Deficiency Vitamin C  Supplements needed due to decreased levels in diet after 90 days of storage.  Daily fresh fruits or monkey vitamins  1-4 mg/kg of body weight every day  Causes: Swelling of long bones and hemorrhaging of the gums

46 Vitamin Deficiency Vitamin D 3 (New World Monkeys)  Supplements needed due to insufficient sunlight.  2000 IU per kg every day  Causes: Soft bones, bone deformities and multiple fractures.

47 How much should I feed my primate? Consumption of adults:  3% to 5% of their body weight DAILY Waste a lot of food  Greater quantity should be offered.  Offer “meals” 2-3 times a day instead of once daily.

48 How about treats? Commercial food  80% to 90% of daily intake Treats  Fresh fruits  Vegetables  Commercial “treats” New World monkeys  Mealworms  Crickets  Canned dog food  Hard broiled eggs

49 Water and Fruit Juices Water  Fresh and clean  Available at all times  Sipper-tube or valved water system. Fruit juices  Offered occasionally as a treat.

50 OVERVIEW: Do RESEARCH!! Check with your state and county for local laws. Have the right cage size for your primate. Feed the right diet depending on the specie’s requirements.

51 References Horne, William A. Primate Anesthesia. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice. 2001;4(1): 239-66.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice. Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A. Primates. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 1994;24(1):121-56.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. Satterfield, William C. and William R. Voss. Nonhuman Primates and the Practitioner. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 1987;17(5):1185-202.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. Wallis, Jannette and D. Rick Lee. Primate Conservation: The Prevention of Disease Transmission. International Journal of Primatology. 1999;20(6):803-826.International Journal of Primatology. Whitney, Robert A. Primate Medicine and Husbandry. Symposium on Non-Domestic Pet Medicine. Veterinary Clinicis of North America: Small Animal Practice. 1979;9(3):429-45.Veterinary Clinicis of North America: Small Animal Practice.


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