The Unity Principle and Einstein´s Theories Peter Kohút The basic questions of theoretical physics : How does the Universe work – what is its basic principle?

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The Unity Principle and Einstein´s Theories Peter Kohút The basic questions of theoretical physics : How does the Universe work – what is its basic principle? What is the basic constituent of matter, energy end space? What is the nature of gravity and other basic interactions: electromagnetic, strong and weak ? What are the basic cosmic laws and their mathematical forms? What do express the basic physical constants like speed of light, Planck´s constant, gravitational constant, elementary charge, fine structure constant ? THE UNITY PRINCIPLE : „Everything is connected with everything else“

Contemporary crisis of theoretical physics Reasons : -positivistic approach (refusal to deal with the basic questions of existence, the range of knowledge is limited to the phenomenological level of reality, only things leading to the useful tangible results have sense) - refusal of philosophy and dialectical logic -limitation to the rules of formal logic and experiment – axiomatic approach : looking for the truth is inserted into the simple scheme of statement logic : A=>B The typical example - Special Relativity Theory based on two axioms: 1. Speed of light c is the same towards all uniformly moving systems. 2. All uniformly moving systems are equivalent from the viewpoint of physical laws. Mathematical form of SRT (Minkowski interpretation):  S =  x 2 +  y 2 +  z 2 -c 2  t 2

S TANDARD MODEL Basic building blocks of material form (FERMI O N S ) - elektromagnetic (photon) - strong (gluon) - weak (intermediate bosons) - gravitational (graviton) Basic interactions – force fields (BOSONS)

INTERACTIONS Exchange of point-like virtual bosons between point-like fermions

DIALECTICAL LOGIC DIALECTICAL LOGIC Basic dialectical categories (relations): Relation of opposites – „something (+)“ ˂-˃ “something else (-)“ bipolar relation - attraction and repulsion – quantum dipole (+/-) Whole˂-˃Part (part is connected with the whole -˃ with all parts of the whole -˃ elementary part = bipolar connection (+/-), every „+“ is connected with all „-“ and reciprocally -˃ G.W.F. Hegel The unity principle : „Everything is connected with everything else“ One ˂-˃ Many (repulsion -˃plurality generation -˃ structuration -˃ cosmic expansion ) Continuity ˂-˃ Discontinuity – part (quantum) = relation (connection) „+/-“ Finality ˂-˃ Infinity Quantity ˂-˃ Quality ˂-˃ Measure Substance ˂-˃ Phenomenon Content ˂-˃ Form Subject ˂-˃ Object

Quantum dipole = elementary constituent of the Universe Scheme of a particle (neutron) compound of three ‘+’ and three ‘-‘ poles with nine internal connections (quantum dipoles) and indication of external connections: + + + External vacuum quantum connections of the particle with the whole Universe + - Elementary quantum dipole: The particle made of nine internal quantum connections Any particle or physical object is defined by quantum dipoles creating its internal structure as well as external quantum dipoles connecting the particle (object) with the whole Universe. The particle so reaches the whole Universe through its external connections.

Balloon model of a quantum dipole Every elementary quantum dipole is a holder of elementary quantum of space, so the volume of space is given by the number of elementary quantum dipoles. Visually the quantum dipole can be imagined as a balloon representing its space in which two charges of anti-poles are melted. + _ top of positive pole positive pole negative pole top of negative pole QUANTUM DIPOLE

The Universe as a network of non-local connections Non-local quantum connections represent the substance of the Universe being in radical contradiction with Einstein´s theory of relativity. It means that the Universe is always universally interconnected. Thus, the principle of universal simultaneity is valid. What is simultaneous in one system is simultaneous automatically in all others. + + The top of positive poles of quantum dipoles connected with all tops of negative poles of all quantum dipoles of the Universe

Local interaction Basic cosmic law: Ϭ t = e i d i where E = ∑e i ( length x energy = constant) Mutual local repulsive pressure

Basic cosmic law e ia = e ir e i = e ia + e ir = 2e ia = 2e ir e ia – attractive part of energy of a quantum dipole i e ir – repulsive part of energy of a quantum dipole i Basic cosmic law : Ϭ t = e i d i = 2e ia d i e ia = Ϭ t /2d i e ia = (q 2 /4πε )/d i, where: Ϭ t = q 2 /(2πε) q – elementary electric charge ε – dielectric capacitance α = q 2 /(2εhc) Coulomb´s relation: e ia = α hc/(2πd i ) α - fine structure constant, h – Planck constant, c - speed of light Basic cosmic law: e i d i = αhc/π = 4,6.10 -28 kgms -2

Electrostatic force – Coulomb´s law Particles or any physical objects with prevalence of positive poles are positively charged. Particles with prevalence of negative poles are negatively charged. The minimal possible quantity of prevalence is the elementary charge. e i = f i.d i f i - force of attraction and repulsion acting between opposite poles through the entire length d i of a quantum dipole i. f i = Ϭ t /d i 2 = αhc/(πd i 2 ) f ia = αhc/(2πd i 2 ) - Coulomb´s law f ia - attractive force of a quantum dipole which corresponds to its potential energy e ia =e i /2 Coulomb´s law expresses the dependence of attractive force, acting between elementary electric charges, on their distance. It is at the same time the expression for the attractive force acting through the elementary quantum dipole with a length d i. This force is indirectly proportional to the square of its length f a = (αhc/2π).2k 1 k 2 /d 2 = (αhc/π).k 1 k 2 /d 2 d - average distance between two neutral material objects. k 1 – number of positive as well as negative poles of neutral object No.1 k 2 – number of positive as well as negative poles of neutral object No.2 2k 1 k 2 - number of elementary quantum connections between two objects is 2k 1 k 2 f a - the whole attractive force between both objects is a sum of attractive forces of all mutual quantum connections

The Nature of GRAVITY After derivation of Coulomb´s relation for the attractive force acting between two neutral massive objects we have mentioned, that this force is compensated by the repulsive pressures of quantum dipoles coming out of both objects. However, this compensation is valid only relatively, a certain part f g of attractive force f a is not compensated f g = βf a and represents the attractive gravitational force f g of bodies: f g = βf a = β(αhc/2π)2k 1 k 2 /d 2 Uncompensated part of attractive forces by repulsive pressures of quantum dipoles is a consequence of deficiency of repulsive forces of the Universe thanks to the fact, that a certain part of these forces is used for cosmic expansion. The total measure of deficiency of repulsive forces and prevalence of attractive ones is manifested by gravity acting between bodies through their long mutual vacuum quantum connections. Then the whole quantity of gravitational force G of the Universe acting between celestial bodies is equal to the quantity of the cosmic expansive force F e as its counterbalance: G = F e Attraction and repulsion are two opposite forces in a mutual dynamic equilibrium. Gravity as an attractive force is a counterbalance of cosmic expansion as a repulsive force. Gravity is just a direct evidence of cosmic expansion.

Cooper´s pair of electrons By low temperature, when kinetic motions are very slow, electrons can create the bound compositions known as Cooper´s pairs. Their ability for mutual attraction allows the existence of superconductivity. Electrons in their basic (not excited) states represent structures with one positive and two negative poles. + + Cooper´s pair of electrons

Photon = quantum oscillator Photon represents the elementary particle consisting of bipolar connection of opposites ”+/-“, which, thanks to their mutual attraction and repulsions, performs a permanent oscillation (vibration, pulsation) manifesting outwards as an electromagnetic wave during a flight. This fact is a consistent and factual explanation of the “wave-particle” duality of light. The photon as an oscillating elementary quantum dipole or a beam of pulsating quanta is not a point-like particle, but represents the elementary quantum of space, which, through its external relations, is connected with all other parts of the Universe (its positive pole “+” is connected with all negative ones “-“ of the Universe and its negative pole “-“ with all positive ones “+”) wavelength vertical height of spatial wave (length of dipole) +

Basic particles and interactions

β - decay of a neutron In 1920 Rutherford quite correctly supposed the existence of a neutral particle being a strong bound state of a proton and an electron, but this nice and clear idea was refused and the monstrous electroweak theory was postulated. The neutron (after its excitation by one photon) decays into a proton and an electron. Their mutual connections being before the constituents of the neutron are now the external connections between a proton and an electron. β - decay of a neutron where flying electrons represent beta (β - ) radiation can be expressed: n + γ → p + + e - where “n + γ“ represents the excited state of a neutron Contemporary theoretical physics represents this decay, considering it to be a manifestation of the so-called weak interaction, by the following form: n → p + + e - + (ν e )? In addition to a proton and an electron the neutrino (antineutrino) ν e is involved. In our structural scheme the neutrino is missing. We do not deny the possible existence of a neutrino. The expression “(ν e )?” only means that we cannot accept it to be a product of β - decay in the presented form. It could be a product only if a neutron is bound in heavy nuclei where nuclear forces and mutual repulsive pressures are strong enough to form a neutrino consisting of four strong, short and energetic quantum dipoles. In 1920 Rutherford quite correctly supposed the existence of a neutral particle being a strong bound state of a proton and an electron, but this nice and clear idea was refused and the monstrous electroweak theory was postulated. The neutron (after its excitation by one photon) decays into a proton and an electron. Their mutual connections being before the constituents of the neutron are now the external connections between a proton and an electron. β - decay of a neutron where flying electrons represent beta (β - ) radiation can be expressed: n + γ → p + + e - where “n + γ“ represents the excited state of a neutron Contemporary theoretical physics represents this decay, considering it to be a manifestation of the so-called weak interaction, by the following form: n → p + + e - + (ν e )? In addition to a proton and an electron the neutrino (antineutrino) ν e is involved. In our structural scheme the neutrino is missing. We do not deny the possible existence of a neutrino. The expression “(ν e )?” only means that we cannot accept it to be a product of β - decay in the presented form. It could be a product only if a neutron is bound in heavy nuclei where nuclear forces and mutual repulsive pressures are strong enough to form a neutrino consisting of four strong, short and energetic quantum dipoles.

The Nuclear Force

Deuteron (6+/5-) in its basic state

α – particle (nucleus of a helium atom 2 He 4 )

The table of increasing cosmic network of quantum dipoles Quantum state 12 k-1kk+1 n Pole s--..............---.............- 1+ +/- 2+ k-1+ +/- k+ k+1++/- n+ The cosmic transition between two symmetric quantum states k and k+1 is accompanied by creation of a new pair (+/-),, together with creation of new quantum dipoles in a new line and column belonging to the symmetric quantum state k+1 (yellow colour). We can see that during the transition from the state k to k+1, the new 2k+1 quantum dipoles appear. Symmetric quantum state k is represented by k 2 quantum dipoles (+/-). V k = k 2 k = 1,2, ….., n V = z.t 2 where z = (d 2 V/dt 2 )/2 Basic quantum space-time equation of the Universe 1. The first quantum state + - 2. The second quantum state + - - +

Einstein´s dogmas and their consequences Relativity of simultaneity <–˃ Universal simultaneity is valid as the Universe is a mutually interconnected network of elementary quantum connections, relativity of simultaneity as well as length contraction do not exist. Time dilation as a consequence of mutual symmetry of uniformly moving systems <–˃ Deceleration of processes in moving objects is a consequence of increased intensity of their interactions with the physical vacuum thanks to their speeds towards the vacuum. Light speed dogma <–˃ Speed of light is constant only towards the real surrounding (vacuum) Erroneous discovery of accelerating cosmic expansion caused by dark energy Speed of light towards us from the distance d: (c-v) = (c-Hd), speed of cosmic expansion decelerates Localism and refusal of direct communication at a distance (spooky action-at-a-distance) causes the schizophrenic situation in quantum physics, although non-locality and entanglement are experimentally verified facts, quantum physicists represent the basic physical interactions (electromagnetic, strong, week and gravitational) as an exchange of virtual point-like bosons by limited speed of light instead of accepting much more logical direct connections as mediators of all interactions. Virtual quarks and bosons do not exist. Gravity is mediated by gravitational waves or gravitons by the speed of light <–˃ Gravity is a direct communication between celestial bodies thanks to their mutual vacuum quantum connections E=mc 2 is a relativistic formula <–˃ It is a formula of classical physics, Einstein´s derivation of the formula is invalid Unifying of Einstein´s theories with quantum physics leads to monstrous theories (e.g. string theories and others) producing mysteries like unobservable strings hidden under the Planck length, eleven-dimensional space-time, evaporating black holes, worm holes, dark energy and parallel universes, back in time traveling, etc.

Situation from the viewpoint of the middle observer: Rocket No. 2 Rocket No. 1 start finish finish start point of acceleration of acceleration point middle observer TWIN PARADOX According to SRT, if rockets move towards one another, from the viewpoint of any rocket the clock slows just in the other one, so each clock must show more elapsed time than the other one at the meeting point, what is impossible. One can argue that rockets accelerated before achievement of the uniform motion, so the moments of finish of acceleration were not simultaneous from the viewpoint of any rocket and if we accept this, their clocks will show the same time at the meeting point.

SRT violates the causality principle z´ z Rocket No.2 Rocket No.1 (system S´) (system S) t 1 ´ = T 0 t 1 = 0 Finish of x´ x Acceleration y´ L 0 y LORENTZ´ S x + L 0 =  (x’ + v(t’-T 0 )), t =  (t’-T 0 + vx’/c 2 ) TRANSFORMATIONS : x‘ =  (x + L 0 - vt), t‘-T 0 =  (t - v(x + L 0 )/c 2 ) where:  = (1-v 2 /c 2 ) -1/2 T 0 = (  -1)L 0 / (  v)  T 0 > Ta Situation from the viewpoint of the Rocket No.1: (event: t 1 = 0, x 1 = - L 0, t 1 ´ = T 0, x 1 ´ = 0 ) At the moment t 1 = 0, when rocket No.1 converts from acceleration to uniform motion, rocket No.2 has already moved uniformly during the period T 0 in its own time, which corresponds to the value γT 0 in the reference frame S of rocket No.1. Suppose rocket No.1 accelerated during its own time T a. This means, both rockets started before the time T a at the moment -T a from the viewpoint of rocket No.1. Independently of what the value T a is (it can be whatever), we can always find L 0 by the given speed v, so that the following relation is valid: γT 0 > T a. This means that the simultaneous start of both rockets came after the rocket No.2 reached the uniform motion from the viewpoint of rocket No.1. This means that from the viewpoint of rocket No.1, the violation of causality appears in the rocket No.2 which finished its acceleration before it began.

E=mc 2 and Einstein´s failure From the viewpoint of relativity theory Einstein derived the following formula for the difference between kinetic energies of a body with respect to the moving system before and after emission of light : K 0 - K 1 = L(1/(1-v 2 /c 2 ) 1/2 – 1) = L/β – L = L(β -1 –1) = ΔL, where β=(1-v 2 /c 2 ) 1/2 L – quantity of emitted energy with respect to the system at rest L/β – quantity of emitted energy of a body with respect to the system moving with the velocity v 1. First crucial mistake : Einstein declared that the difference in kinetic energies K 0 - K 1 is a result of the whole emitted energy L leading to invalid deduction, that mass diminishes by L/c 2, although K 0 - K 1 is a result of ΔL, so he could only compare the loss of relativistic mass Δm with the increased energy ΔL (but not the whole emitted energy L !) thanks to relative velocity v of moving system with respect to the emitting body. 2. Second crucial mistake : Einstein transformed the correct relation L(β -1 –1) to the wrong relation Lv 2 /(2c 2 ) by the procedure of neglecting magnitudes of fourth and higher orders, which is inadmissible for the relativistic conditions, as the difference ΔL=L(β -1 –1) can be remarkable only by high speeds v close to the speed of light c and, at these speeds, the correct formula ΔL=L(β -1 –1) gives quite different results than Einstein´s wrong formula Lv 2 /(2c 2 ) Conclusion The formula E=mc 2 is classical and non-relativistic. Einstein´s conclusion about mass-energy relation has no validity because of its invalid derivation, what disqualifies him as an originator of the famous formula.

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