New Public Management (in England) 1.Individual responsibility* 2.Risk-minimisation (e.g. ‘educational triage’) 3.Transmissive teaching (e.g. closely defined syllabi and teaching strategies) 4.A focus on measurable outcomes * 5.Detached relationships, related to performance (e.g. commodification of pupils) 6.Competitive working relationships seen as key to create improvement * 7.Trust based primarily on systems of monitoring and motivation (theory X) (also see Elliot, 2001, O'Neill, 2002) 8.Customer-supplier relationships with the environment (e.g. parents) * 9.Conformity, associated with external control and risk minimisation (Thrupp & Willmott, 2003) 10.Strong ‘heroic’ leadership (e.g. ‘superhead’ ) Critics: e.g. Ball (2001); Thrupp and Willmott (2003); Alexander (2003) NPM: e.g. *Hood (1991); Enteman (1993); Fergusson (2000)
OLA HOFF KALDESTAD To be a true teacher, you must be a learner first: Indeed, teachers` own passion for learning inspires their students as much as their expertise do (Senge 1999: 332).
Schools-as-learning-communities 1.Shared responsibility among all members 2.Considered risk-taking and experimenting to improve teaching and learning 3.Social constructivist thinking & reflective practice, prevalent and dominant 4.A focus on activities which improve every member’s educational experience 5.Mutual care & respect 6.Working relationships that tend to be collaborative, but embrace diversity, and seen as key to improvement 7.Mutual trust (theory Y) 8.Partnerships with the environment (for example, parents) 9.Diverse interests and talents embraced 10.Distributed leadership e.g. Jeffrey, B. & Woods, P. (2003) Mitchell and Sackney (2000); Sergiovanni (1999); Retallick et al (1999); Fielding (1999)
Inservice-training program for new school leaders A ministry-made curriculum frame Invitation to universities and teacher-training colleges to tender Cooperation between institutions that delivered tender Three out of eleven were selected My institution in cooperation with five nabour-institutions in Western Norway got one of the contracts
To become a leader, you must first become a human being. Confusius
Our Model The role of school leadership, attitude, educational credo, how to create trust Cooperation and teambuilding. Building a learning organization Development and improvement. Leading a learing organization The learning environment and pupils learning School management
OLA HOFF KALDESTAD The leader as a Servant It has been shown again and again in combat that when people`s lives are at stake, they will only reliably follow commanding officers who they trust, who they perceive as having their well-beeing at hart (Senge 1999:334).