Presentation on theme: "Roman Republic 8 40’s BC The Civil war. CIVIL WAR BETWEEN CAESAR & POMPEY (from 49BC) CAESAR AGAINST THE SENATE by the end of 50BC, the optimates in the."— Presentation transcript:
CIVIL WAR BETWEEN CAESAR & POMPEY (from 49BC) CAESAR AGAINST THE SENATE by the end of 50BC, the optimates in the senate had won Pompey to their side. –Caesar’s pro-consular imperium in Gaul about to expire leaving him vulnerable to prosecution for “misdeeds” during his term, –Jan 1 – Senate rejects a proposal from Caesar that he and Pompey lay down their commands at the same time. The Senate says unless he immediately surrender his command he will be “enemy of the state “. –January 10 – Julius Caesar leads the 13 th legion across the Rubicon, which separates his jurisdiction (Cisalpine Gaul) from that of the SPQR & Consuls for 50BC (Italy), and thus initiates a civil war. Pompey and most of the optimate senate flee Rome “a tactical retreat” –Intending to stop at Capua in the Italian mountains blocking Caesar’s supporters while they gather their own forces, but the treasury falls into Caesar’s hands so he can now afford to increase his force –February, Pompey's flight to Brindisium then to Dyrrachium (in Western Greece) with most of the Senate Caesar advances against Pompey’s forces in Spain (March to November) –April 19, Caesar's siege of Massilia ((Marseilles) against the Pompeian army. –June, Caesar's arrival in Hispania, who was able to seized the Pyrenees passes –July 30 –Aug 2, Pompeians in Ilerda (Lerida) surrendered to Caesar –September 6, Massilia surrendered to Caesar, coming back from Hispania Caesar appointed Dictator in Rome (for 11 days in October 49BC) –presides over his own election as consul for 48BC and resigns the dictatorship after eleven days
CIVIL WAR in 48, 47 BC January 4, Caesar taking the war to Pompey lands in Greece at Dyrrhachium –March, Antony joined Caesar. July 10 – Battle of Dyrrhachium, Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey – who prefers to wait for Caesar’s troops to loose heart & food rather than attack Romans –he retreats to Pharsalus in Thessaly. August 9 – Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus & Pompey flees to Egypt. –Pompey pressured into unwise attack by the optimate senators Cato and Metellus Scipio –In Egypt Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII are arguing over the throne & Ptolemy wants Caesar’s support September 28, Caesar learns that Pompey was assassinated on arrival in Egypt. –Pompey is killed by officers of Ptolemy XIII when he lands in Egypt –Caesar is furious, has the killers executed, and supports Cleopatra (& sires his only son, Caesarion) –December — After a siege in Alexandria, Egypt between the forces of Caesar and Cleopatra against Ptolemy & another sister, Arsinoe IV – the latter two are defeated and flee the city –Cleopatra becomes queen of Egypt. During the battle part of the Library of Alexandria catches fire and is burned down. Caesar is named Dictator for 47BC with Mark Antony as “magister equitum”. –this gives him a veto over all offices on the cursus homorum making him effectively monarch February — rest of the year 47BC: Caesar defeats his opponents –Caesar & Cleopatra defeat the forces of the rival Ptolemy & Arsinoe IV –Ptolemy was killed, Caesar then relieved his besieged forces in Alexandria –May - Caesar defeated Pharnaces II of Pontus: Mithridates son rebelled while C busy in Egypt. C defeated him in Battle of Zela. (This is the 5 day war that Caesar said “veni, vidi, vici.” I came, I saw, I Conquered) –Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt promotes her younger brother Ptolemy XIV of Egypt to co-ruler. –August, Caesar quelled a mutiny of his veterans in Rome. –October, Caesar begins his invasion of North Africa. –against Cato, Pompey’s sons, Metellus Scipio and Labienus, Caesar's former lieutenant in Gaul 46BC February 6 – Caesar defeats the combined army of remaining Optimates. Metellus Scipio & Cato are defeated in the Battle of Thapsus. They commit suicide further up the coast in Utica –Cato becoming a republican martyr. Refusing to live in a world ruled by Caesar, and refusing giving him say over his life
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