Presentation on theme: "35,000 BC M175 M45 M20 M9 About 35,000 years ago, one branch of the M9 clan moved north into Central Asia in pursuit of the game animals that abounded."— Presentation transcript:
35,000 BC M175 M45 M20 M9 About 35,000 years ago, one branch of the M9 clan moved north into Central Asia in pursuit of the game animals that abounded there and begat the M45 lineage. This marker is carried on the Y-chromosomes of men of both the R haplogroup (principally European and Indian) and the Q haplogroup (mostly Native American). NEXT
30,000 BC M173 M45 Around 30,000 years ago a mutation occurred in a M45 man and produced the M173 lineage, which traveled westward into Europe at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic Period. More than 40% of European men, as well as many men from Iran and India, carry the M173 marker and belong to haplogroup R. NEXT
Burgundy = the geographical distribution of haplogroup R. NEXT
M60 M91 M130 M96 M201 M168 M52 M89 M170M304 M9 M45 M173 During the early Upper Paleolithic members of haplogroup R settled throughout Europe, from Ukraine to Spain, but during the height of the glaciation ( ,000 BC) the western population became isolated from the eastern population, producing two major subgroups of haplogroup R. R1a R1b NEXT
30,000 BC M173 M45 At the southwestern end of haplogroup R’s range a mutation developed soon after the M173 lineage entered Europe. This marker, M343, defines the most common male haplogroup of western Europe, haplogroup R1b. R1b men carrying the M343 marker are known to have expanded northward from Iberia at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (14,000 to 11,000 BC). The R1b lineage dominates modern western European populations and their ancestors may have responsible for the famous Ice Age cave art of sites such as Lascaux and Altamira. M343 NEXT
M60 M91 M130 M96 M201 M168 M52 M89 M170M304 M9 M45 M173 M175 M % of the men in our current CSUEB Y-chromosome sample belong to haplogroup R1b, or one of its subclades such as R1b1c. Genetic studies conducted in England show over 70% there, while figures in Spain and Ireland rise well above 90%. R1b NEXT
Here’s just a few of the R1b men in our museum sample. Notice the heavy concentration of R1b men in western Europe and their relative scarcity in countries of eastern Europe.
Of course, learning that just about every other European man that you meet belongs to the same R1b haplogroup as you do is not all that satisfying, if you are interested in finding the specific geographic origins of your ancestors. ? ? ? ?? So, geneticist have been working very hard to break down the R1b haplogroup into smaller sub-groupings, referred to as sub-clades. NEXT
They have found, for instance, that a very large percentage of R1b men belong to the subclade called R1b1c, and that within R1b1c there are at least 10 additional subtypes, some of which possess very specific geographic distributions. Basque Northern Spain Ireland A R1b man seeking to determine if he belongs to one of these more specific subclades must undergo further testing to confirm if his Y-chromosome DNA shows any of the markers (SNPs) shown here as blue and green numbers. British Isles Jutland NEXT
In December, 2006 eleven R1b men from the CSUEB Group were tested by the Ethnoancestry laboratory in London for the possible presence of the four SNPs (S21, S26, S29, & S28) that would confirm their membership in subclades R1b1c9 or R1b1c10. Here are their results… NEXT Willie Germany Brent England? Bob Mexico Breck England? Anton Switzerland Ken Ireland Robert England David Mexico Bill England Grant England James England
Anton Revenaugh (born in Switzerland) and Willie Nieman (with a German paternal ancestor) tested positive for S21, placing them in subclade R1b1c9*. 20 to 25% of all R1b men belong to this subclade, which is primarily a contin- ental marker believed to have developed in northern Germany or in Frisia (northern Holland) over 5000 years ago. NEXT Willie Germany Anton Switzerland
Grant Cherrington (with an English father) tested positive for S29 placing him in subclade R1b1c9b. This subclade has been found only in the British Isles and is believed to have originated in pre-Anglo-Saxon times, rather than being a product of recent historic invasions from the continent. NEXT Grant England
NEXT James England Breck England? Bill England Breck Parkman (with probable English ancestry), James Hawkins (with English ancestry), and William Chunn (with a known pedigree going back to Berkshire, England) tested positive for the S28 SNP, which places them in subclade R1b1c10. This subclade occurs almost exclusively in a belt just north of the Alps from Greece through Poland, Alpine Germany, Italy, Switzerland and west to the Bay of Biscay and Britain.
NEXT This distribution pattern coincides almost perfectly with the range of the Iron Age La Tène culture that dominated Central Europe from about 450 BC until the time of Roman conquest about 100 BC. Some researchers identify S28, therefore, as an Alpine Celtic marker, which later spread well beyond the Celtic homeland.
In England haplogroup R1b1c10 (S28) is documented principally along the east coast from East Anglia in the south to Northumbria in the north, and running inland as far as Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands. This is the region known as the Danelaw, which was settled by Danish Vikings in the 9th and 10th centuries. NEXT
One of the main staging areas for the Danish invasion of England was in the northern Jutland Peninsula in an area controlled by a Celtic tribe called the Cimbri. Some scholars believe that many of the Danish Vikings that settled in Britain were of Cimbri blood who had come centuries before from the Alps.
the route that their earlier Viking ancestors took across the North Sea from Denmark, and… their probable roots among yet more ancient Celtic tribes of southern Germany and the Swiss Alps. NEXT So, thanks to the identification of the S28 marker Breck, James,and Bill now know the likely area of England where their forefathers lived during the Middle Ages, …
Ken Duffy (Irish ancestry), Bob Cuellar (Mexican ancestry), Robert Norton (English ancestry), David Mendivil (Mexican ancestry) and Brent Wilcox (English ancestry) tested negative for all four of the ‘S’ SNPs. They were inferred, therefore, not to belong to either haplogroup R1b1c9 or R1b1c10 and assigned instead to the overarching R1b1c* subclade common across all of western Europe. In the future each of these men probably could be identified as belonging to one of the other specific subclades of R1b1c (such as R1b1c6), but that would require further SNP testing to identify markers such as M153, M167, or M222. NEXT Bob Mexico David Mexico Brent England? Ken Ireland Robert England
A kiosk presentation prepared for the exhibition March 2 to June 15, 2007